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From archaeological sites to nanoscale: the quest of tailored analytical strategy and modelling

From archaeological sites to nanoscale: the quest of tailored analytical strategy and modelling

Models have been used for a long time, for example to understand the proper- ties of materials during their manufacture, as for example glass viscosity (Bingham and Jackson 2008), or thermodynamic phase predominance domains in metallurgy or corrosion. Nevertheless, one of the most exciting challenge for the modelling of “heritage systems” is to link properties and behaviours at different scales. For example, the modelling of the corrosion behaviour of a heritage arte- fact made of metal needs to understand the nanometer scale properties of the lay- ers formed on the metallic surfaces, but also the climatic evolution of the area where the artefact is stored or exposed. The need of a multiscale approach is actu- ally not a specificity of conservation science or Cultural Heritage approaches, but is a demand in several domains and fields of science and engineering (Yang and Marquardt 2009). In chemical engineering, because of the need to go from a labo- ratory scaled production to the industrial one, this multiscale approach is relatively popular for several ten years as detailed by Vlachos (Vlachos 2005). In ecology and environmental sciences, some efforts have been made to perform multi-scale approaches to evaluate structures of landscapes (Burnett and Blaschke 2003). For “Heritage systems” as buildings, multiscale modelling combining micro and macro approaches allows to understand ancient building techniques in order to better diagnose the seismic risks (Mele et al. 2003 ; Abruzzese et al. 2009), or un- derstanding the influence of use of some materials (wooden beams reinforcement) for resistance to earthquakes (Kouris and Kappos 2012). In the same area of Cul- tural Heritage, multiscale data are often used for 3D modelling (Remondino et al. 2009 ; De Luca 2014), but also for the modelling of large and complex archaeo- logical areas (Guidi et al. 2009). Nevertheless, these approaches do not include as large scales gap than the ones that must be involved for other domain of Heritage science as conservation or even multidisciplinary Archaeological sciences. For ex- ample, to model the use of resources or materials by ancient societies, to appre- hend the qualities of raw materials or artefacts and consequently their technical and economical values, it is necessary to perform analytical studies (referring to Archaeometry or Archaeological science) to assess the nanometric and micro- scopic composition or structure of the archaeological materials found during exca- vations (see other chapters). This data can then be included in wider databases, containing information on the different archaeological sites and on the link be- tween the different sites. This holistic analysis of these different kinds of data, col- lected at different scales (from the nanometre for the chemical composition of the
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Chupicuaro archaeological sites: from magnetic survey to excavation (late pre-classic period, Middle Lerma Valley, Guanajuato, Mexico)

Chupicuaro archaeological sites: from magnetic survey to excavation (late pre-classic period, Middle Lerma Valley, Guanajuato, Mexico)

Electronic reference Vincent Bichet, Christophe Durlet, Christophe Petit, Véronique Darras and Brigitte Faugère, « Chupicuaro archaeological sites: from magnetic survey to excavation (late pre-classic period, Middle Lerma Valley, Guanajuato, Mexico) », ArcheoSciences [Online], 33 (suppl.) | 2009, Online since 30 October 2011, connection on 01 October 2016. URL : http://archeosciences.revues.org/1229 ; DOI : 10.4000/archeosciences.1229

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Grapes and vines of the Phoenicians: morphometric analyses of pips from modern varieties and Iron Age archaeological sites in the Western Mediterranean

Grapes and vines of the Phoenicians: morphometric analyses of pips from modern varieties and Iron Age archaeological sites in the Western Mediterranean

Grapes and vines of the Phoenicians: morphometric analyses of pips from modern varieties and Iron Age archaeological sites in the Western Mediterranean Claudia Moricca, Laurent Bouby, Vincent Bonhomme, Sarah Ivorra, Guillem Pérez-Jordà, Lorenzo Nigro, Federica Spagnoli, Leonor Peña-Chocarro, Peter

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The APPEAR Method for guiding the valorisation of urban archaeological sites

The APPEAR Method for guiding the valorisation of urban archaeological sites

The museum display design helps make the link between the various elements involved in the museum display, by arranging the materials and contents of the display to make it visually and spatially informative and pleasurable for the visitor and to meet their needs and interests. The choices made must follow the project owner’s specification and must be carefully thought through because errors made now can have negative repercussions on the final enhancement. The museum display scenario and design are used as the basis for the development of the museum display plan, which includes all the information required for implementation of the work. There are different ways of presenting the information to be communicated to the visitors: texts, images, reconstructions, dramatisations, guided talks etc. Choosing the relevant methods depends on the type of public targeted; the type of information; the amount and quality of the scientific information and the archaeological objects available; the requirements of the design plan (which depends on available space and the requirement of preventive conservation); the budget and the resources available for upkeep and maintenance of the equipment.
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Between the Danube Delta and the Black Sea. Preliminary results of a multi-proxy study of two archaeological sites (Histria and Halmyris, Romania)

Between the Danube Delta and the Black Sea. Preliminary results of a multi-proxy study of two archaeological sites (Histria and Halmyris, Romania)

21 as in regional ones (the wars between Hellenistic kingdoms) (Pippidi 1967). The Early Roman Period marks the end of Histria’s autonomy. In spite of this, the city became prosperous once again in the 2nd c. AD, as demonstrated by the archaeological material. Another defense wall was built, west of the Hellenistic one, while the Sacred Area was abandoned and over it a residential district was raised (Avram et al. 2013). Furthermore, during this period, the city received two bath complexes (Suceveanu 1982), as well as the civil basilica from the agora. After the period of stability ensured by Emperor Trajan, Histria was confronted with increased barbarian pressure starting with the Marcomanic Wars during the reign of emperor Marc Aurelius. The peak of this conflict was during the second half of the 3rd c. AD, when a Gothic invasion caused the city’s most violent destruction – (SHA, Max. Balb. 16, 3 mentions the
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Remains of Leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea , at Mid-Late Holocene archaeological sites in coastal Oman: clues of past worlds

Remains of Leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea , at Mid-Late Holocene archaeological sites in coastal Oman: clues of past worlds

Schott & McCreary (2001) and Schott, Xie & McCreary (2009) have provided abundant oceanographic documentation for this phenomenon; indeed, the “Ras al Hadd Jet” figures prominently in their figures and discussions about oceanic currents. Hence, during Mid- to Late Holocene the abundance and availability of these turtles in Omani waters, particularly off the Ja’alan and Batinah coasts, may well have been very different—perhaps more common—than during modern times. This raises the possibility that during certain periods within this span of three millennia remains of these turtles were more likely to be deposited at Neolithic and Bronze Age sites than they are today in Oman. If the amount of sediment sampled at RH-6 was comparable to the amount sampled at HD-6, the RAMDR of D. coriacea was evidently higher at HD-6 than at RH-6. This would indicate that conditions around 3,000 BC off the Ja’alan coast may have been more favorable for these turtles than they were around 5,000 BC off the Batinah. If there were significant environmental and/or socio-cultural differences between
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Analysis of a sub-bottom sonar profiler for surveying underwater archaeological sites

Analysis of a sub-bottom sonar profiler for surveying underwater archaeological sites

By characterizing the transducer and the signal processing electronics it was possible to collect quantitative field data with the sensor and compare it with a model [r]

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Lockdown reveals cracks in archaeological heritage protection

Lockdown reveals cracks in archaeological heritage protection

In the 1960s, rapid economic development became the number-one cause of the destruction of archaeological sites in western countries. At that time, many historical remains were destroyed to make room for large construction projects that ravaged previously preserved archaeological strata. As a result, governments and heritage protection organisations sought to strike a balance between maintaining economic development and preserving archaeological heritage. Broad protection principles emerged simultaneously in several western countries.

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Islands and archaeological research in Western France

Islands and archaeological research in Western France

________________________________________________________ Figure 7: Ancient fish traps, Saint-Jacut-de-la-Mer (photo by L. Langouët). We can give some quantitative data to illustrate the efficiency of systematic survey campaigns. On Groix island, the first desk-based inventory mentioned a high archaeological potential of 35 sites, especially megaliths distributed over the 1520 hectares of the island. Following two fieldwork surveys of one month each, carried out with a team of three to seven persons, the dataset lists more than 150 archaeological sites or deposits, dating from the Palaeolithic period up to Modern times. While the Neolithic period has long been known on this island (see above), some of the cultural or chronological evidence needs to be revised. This research provides totally new information, on the one hand concerning the early Prehistoric population of the island (especially late Palaeolithic) and, on the other hand, the Roman period. From 2003 to 2006, four expeditions (of three weeks duration each) were mounted that allowed a group of four specialists and six students to obtain more detailed data on some sites (Molines et al., 2004). The Ushant Heritage inventory, carried out in 1990-1991, was also a collaborative study involving 6-8 persons, spending two months in the field. The starting point of the inventory was the mention of 8 archaeological sites, while, as a “final” result, the dataset listed 105 archaeological sites or deposits, unequally distributed over the 1558 hectares of the island (Robic [ed], 1992).
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Some Considerations on the Integration of Geophysical Data into Archaeological Research

Some Considerations on the Integration of Geophysical Data into Archaeological Research

Some other considerations must be added to the preceding discussion and the answer to the question “Is there a final map?” Obviously the answer is “No!” because “Yes” would mean that no place would be is left for present or later discussion. Even if at a certain point one must stop processing the data for realistic reasons, the way must be left open to further interpretation. If we do not accept this assess- ment, this would mean that obtaining a perfect document or at least a better one in terms of the archaeological picture is an aim in itself. Obtaining such an image is not obvious on all archaeological sites or when dealing with a large panel of different problems in archaeology. Mapping a city network with regularly laid out walls and streets at shallow depth in a flat alluvial ground or searching for hidden entrances of possible prehistoric caves under a mass of fallen rocks and earth at the bottom of a limestone cliff cannot lead to the same type of spectacular image. In this respect, looking exclusively for spectacular images can lead to a non-scientific selection of appropriate sites in order to obtain this kind of result. Selecting sites in an appropriate environment also leads to a selection among the available geophysical methods in such a way that some of our colleagues may be heard stating that magnetic survey or radar ‘time-slices’ are the only really appropriate methods for archaeological surveying. This clearly constitutes an impoverishment of the range of available methods and reduces considerably the number of archaeological sites to be considered as suitable for geophysical investigation. Another consequence is that basic research and studies may then run the risk of being disregarded, since they often provide us with complicated and rather unreadable maps unless a careful interpretation is paid to
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Towards an Archaeological Information System: Improving the Core Data Model

Towards an Archaeological Information System: Improving the Core Data Model

2.2. The archaeologically-based data model The archaeological object is placed in the center of our model and is the smallest unit of our system. An historical object is defined by its spatiality, temporality and its functionality. This definition relies on the object identity definition proposed by Peuquet (Peuquet, 1994) for geographical object and re-used for archaeology by Rodier (Galinié et al., 2004; Rodier et al., 2011; Rodier et al., 2012). However, the definition used within our data model differs from the one proposed by Rodier. For Rodier, a change of one of the three constitutional components of an object implies a change of the object identity. We opted for a more flexible identity definition, which means that a change impacting one of the three constitutional components does not necessarily imply an object identity change. This definition relies on the proposition of Hornsby and Egenhofer (Hornsby and Egenhofer, 2000). The second difference concerns the data imperfection that is not handled in Rodier’s approach. We adopt imperfection types of De Runz (De Runz, 2008). First, the presence of the three constitutional components (spatiality, temporality and functionality) is made optional in order to manage the incompleteness of the object. Then, we create a concept called Version, which allows representing multiple spatial representations for the same object and consequently is a way to manage spatial ambiguity. The Modification Event is a concept based on the event management, a quite common concept within the field of computation. With the Modification Event it becomes possible to keep track of the changes of an archaeological object in a large temporal framework. In such way that changes between different states of an archaeological object are recorded.
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Le silex bédoulien sur les sites chasséens du Languedoc : étude fonctionnelle, statut des sites et réseaux de diffusion

Le silex bédoulien sur les sites chasséens du Languedoc : étude fonctionnelle, statut des sites et réseaux de diffusion

Au regard de la proportion de lamelles en silex bédou- lien chauffé, de leur forte standardisation et du déficit de nucléus, l’hypothèse d’un statut de site redistributeur de silex bédoulien chauffé a été proposée pour le site d’Auriac (Vaquer, 1991 ; Vaquer, Remicourt, 2010). Les résultats de l’analyse tracéologique confortent le fait que l’appro- visionnement en silex bédoulien chauffé – préformes ou lamelles – fut aisé, puisque les lamelles ont été peu ou brièvement utilisées. Toutefois, la redistribution est moins évidente. Le spectre fonctionnel du site d’Auriac se distin- gue des deux autres par une quasi-absence de traces de coupe de végétaux tendres. Puisque ce site ne semble pas être à vocation agricole, ce qui est plutôt rare pour un site de plein air chasséen, nous devons nous interroger sur la très forte représentation du travail sur matières indétermi- nées. Les lamelles, classées dans ce groupe, ont des bords pratiquement intacts et les quelques micro-écaillements observés auraient très bien pu être causés par le transport des produits ou par le piétinement, ce qui s’accorde assez bien avec l’hypothèse d’un passage sur le site avant une éventuelle redistribution vers des sites géographiquement proches d’Auriac mais moins bien intégrés dans les réseaux d’échanges.
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A phylogenetic approach of mythology and its archaeological consequences.

A phylogenetic approach of mythology and its archaeological consequences.

The protomyth can itself be used to make inferences about the behaviour of its Saharan speakers. It in- forms us about what they were communicating and documents evidence for a strong belief in the possibility for an image to come to life (as do-cumented by archaeological evidences: d’Huy 2009; d’Huy and Le Quellec 2009; Le Quellec 2012).

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Archaeological Arsenical Bronzes and Equilibrium in the As-Cu System

Archaeological Arsenical Bronzes and Equilibrium in the As-Cu System

phase diagram of the Cu rich end of the Cu-As system illustrating a eutectic at 685°C and 20.8 wt.% As with a maximum solubility of 7.96 wt.% As; adapted and modified from Ref. [2] Figure 3 Row A-C (from left to right): Microstructure of As-Cu alloys from the 20 K/min DTA cooled sample. Note the increasing amounts of γ-phase and (α+γ) eutectic with increasing amount of As. As-Cu-1 was etched with FeCl3; and the others untreated. The black areas in the centre of the samples are mainly interdendritic porosity. In As- Cu-1 - As-Cu-3, the arsenic is mainly in the α-solid solution. As-Cu-4 and As-Cu-5 showed increasing γ-phase and α+γ eutectic. Arsenic-rich and arsenic-poor zones of the α-solid solution are visible even without etching. As-Cu-7 As to Cu-15 showed significant amounts of γ-phase and α+γ eutectic, and increasing porosity. As-Cu-11 and As-Cu-15 showed “inverse segregation” of α+γ eutectic on the surface of the samples (see also [1]). Row D: Microstructure of selected as-cast ingots (As-Cu 4, As-Cu-6, and As-Cu-8). Row E – Microstructure of an archaeological As-Cu alloy Caucasian Bronze Age dagger c. 1000 BC [B] (from left to right): The alloy was cold deformed and annealed, and gamma phase precipitated on the surface and along the grain boundaries. No As was found in the corrosion. Dark inclusions of CuS were present with c. 21 wt.% S, and white inclusions of mainly of Cu-Pb with c. 20–22 wt.% Pb. Within the latter were other elements such as Sb, Sn, and Ag, each with up to 1.5 wt.%.
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Tracking archaeological and historical mines using mineral prospectivity mapping.

Tracking archaeological and historical mines using mineral prospectivity mapping.

Various mineral species were identi fied in most of the exploi- tation tailings and associated outcrops. When (argentiferous) galena is very abundant in dumps, silver/lead exploitation is hypothesised. Similarly, iron mining is presumed in areas excep- tionally rich in pyrite or iron oxide. Locally, cassiterite, tennantite or tetrahedrite were recognised, which might suggest tin and copper mining. Some auriferous arsenopyrite was also occasionally found. In addition to the high diversity of minerals found, the situation is complicated by the fact that most of these sites may have experienced polymetallic exploitation, possibly operating in several successive phases. Despite these dif ficulties, the nature of the exploited metals was ascertained for 39 sites (out of the original 109), including 20 sites with lead (and possibly silver) mining and 15 sites where iron was primarily exploited ( Fig. 1 f). Both Mn and As are known to have been mined with more or less success in at least two places. The final two sites were presumed to be Cu mines. This attribution, which is essential for the remainder of the study, was made with a relatively high level of con fidence, either when the field evidence was clear, or better still, when textual archives provided valuable technical details (see Delfour et al., 1991; Gourault, 1999, 2009; Gourault et al., 2012; Tamas, 2004 , and references cited therein). The nature of the mineral substances exploited could not be determined, or even suggested, with reasonable con fidence for the remaining 70 sites, because no ores were found, or because no particular mineralogical species dominated in dumps ( Fig. 1 g). No relationship was observed be- tween the types of structures and the nature of the mineral sub- stances exploited. Although no systematic pedestrian prospection was undertaken throughout the entire park (area A2), known mines are included in Fig. 1 f eg.
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Towards an Archaeological Information System: improving the core data model

Towards an Archaeological Information System: improving the core data model

Muriel Van Ruymbeke- Cyril Carré - Vincent Delfosse – Pierre Hallot – Michelle Pfeiffer- Roland Billen... Research Context.[r]

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From Archaeological Sherds to Qualitative Information for Settlement Pattern Studies

From Archaeological Sherds to Qualitative Information for Settlement Pattern Studies

these off-sites units cannot be accurately dated and they cover a long period of time. We cannot often go further from the traditional divisions in large periods, as the Iron Age for example. These different chronological resolutions make it impossible to map together settlements and off-sites units, nor to analyse their relationships, unless we consider settlements at the lowest resolution, but then we lose dynamic information (Fig. 3).

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Semantic enrichment in the archaeological field: the case of Calakmul

Semantic enrichment in the archaeological field: the case of Calakmul

Workshop of the COST action TU0801 – Liege, 23-24 nov 2009...  Objects change over the time..[r]

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Droit de réponse et sites Internet

Droit de réponse et sites Internet

Sur le dénigrement Les sociétés demanderesses soutiennent que l’UFC-QUE CHOISIR a publié, dans les trois textes litigieux mis en ligne sur ses sites ainsi, semble-t-il, que dans d’autres médias (sont mentionnés à cet égard des articles du quotidien LES ECHOS, des interviewes accordées à la station EUROPE 1 et à la chaîne LCI, et des communiqués de l’AFP, sans qu’on comprenne clairement s’ils sont également incriminés), des informations dénigrantes, ce qui constituerait une faute au sens de l’article 1382 du code civil caractérisant un trouble manifestement illicite.
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Étude des sites web des universités

Étude des sites web des universités

    Perspectives Plusieurs universités ont su se doter des moyens pour résoudre les problèmes de communication, notamment le problème central de cohérence. On trouve tout de même, dans de nombreux cas, des sites qui ont été totalement refondus de manière à ce que la plus grande partie des contenus soit présentée d’une manière unifiée et valorisante, en particulier ce qui a trait aux formations, aux composantes, aux thèmes de recherche, etc. Il en résulte des sites forts, homogènes, dégageant une image professionnelle.

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