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Science and society

Science and society

At the time that Einstein developed relativity theory the believers in relevance would surely have told him he should devote his efforts to something more releva[r]

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New media technologies, law, and society: an ecological approach

New media technologies, law, and society: an ecological approach

The crux of Lessig’s argument in Code: version 2.0 consists of the observations that code will supersede law as the “primary defense” of intellectual property in cyberspace and that this shift could result in a shift, or lack, of balance between control and access, expansive and potentially unchecked power for those who control this architecture, and a potential stifling of creativity 17 . Citing Tim Wu, Lessig outlines how “code itself is not necessarily regulation enhancing – code can be used to foil regulation. A gun is a bit of code. It works wonders to destroy the peace. Circumvention technologies are code. They weaken rules reinforcing control.” 18 Whether one argues for or against regulation, it is clear that Lessig sees code as the heart of the struggle. For Lessig, “code writers are increasingly lawmakers” and their “decisions, now made in the interstices of how the Net is coded, define what the Net is” 19 . The question then becomes who will these architects be and how will they choose to code?
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Science and Society: Death, Unconsciousness and the Brain

Science and Society: Death, Unconsciousness and the Brain

ignorance on the part of the public or policy makers about the medical reality of brain death and the vegetative state. Therefore, the medical community should improve educational and public awareness programmes on the neurocentric criteria and testing of death; stimulate the creation of advance directives as a form of advance medical care planning; continue to develop clinical practice guidelines; and more actively encourage research on physiological effects and therapeutic benefit of treatment options in patients with severe brain damage. What is the future of death? Improving technologies for brain repair and prosthetic support for brain functions (for example, stem cells, neurogenesis, neural computer prostheses, cryonic suspension and nano-neurological repair) might one day change our current ideas of irreversibility and force medicine and society to once again revise its definition of death.
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Embedding ‘‘Science and Society’’ within Nanotechnologies’ Development

Embedding ‘‘Science and Society’’ within Nanotechnologies’ Development

Regulation? • Regulation is the sustained and focused attempt to alter the behaviour of others according to defined standards or purposes with the intention of producing a broadly identified outcome or outcomes, which may involve mechanisms of standard-setting, information-gathering and behaviour-modification (Black 2002, p.19).

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A propos de l'encyclopédie "Law & Society"

A propos de l'encyclopédie "Law & Society"

sociologie du droit (Arnaud, 1988, réédité en 1993) – auquel une notice est d’ailleurs consacrée. L’Encyclopédia of Law and Society est de plus parfaitement complémentaire avec d’autres outils existants. C’est le cas avec les Law & Society Reader (Abel, 1995 ou Friedman, MacAulay and Stookey, 1996) lesquels proposent des compilations de textes classiques en sociologie du droit (comme le fameux « Why the ‘Haves’ Come Out Ahead : Speculations on the Limits of Legal Change » de Marc Galanter dans le Reader dirigé par Abel). C’est également le cas avec The Blackwell Companion to Law and Society (Sarat, 2004), lequel offre un état des savoirs portant sur le champ « droit et société », sous la forme d’articles plus longs, plus denses et plus problématisés que dans une encyclopédie. Ces différents outils, largement utilisés dans l’enseignement de la sociologie du droit aux Etats- Unis, s’avèrent très commodes pour se familiariser avec la littérature internationale.
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The Nature-Society Controversy in France: Epistemological and Political Implications

The Nature-Society Controversy in France: Epistemological and Political Implications

1. Introduction Since the 19th century, a modern movement promoting the protection of nature has been developing - first in the USA and then worldwide - as the negative consequences of human activity on nature were revealed. Institutions have come up with a wide range of possible solutions: the conservation of forests, the creation of national parks, the development of green zones in cities etc. The increasing promotion of nature as a central value for human establishments since the seventies has been an opportunity to question the relation between nature and society in the western world. This chapter aims at giving a portrait of the major anthropological, sociological and philosophical contributions that fuelled the ongoing debate concerning the distinction between nature and society - and the many social repercussions of this debate, in France and elsewhere. The different positions have important pragmatic implications for the management of natural areas for example. We will first introduce the works of Bruno Latour who, we believe, launched the debate we are interested in. We will then present the works of Philippe Descola, whose work aims at proving that our concept of nature is a construction of the Moderns, a construction that is contextualized as any other cultural construction might be. But apart from these scholarly concerns, and even without any normative arguments against the properly modern dualism that is at stake here, one might say the ecological critique of modernity finds its roots in the nature-society distinction. What principle, other than this dichotomy, could be the basis for a proper ecological criticism of modernity? What could be the criterion for a denunciation of the human-non human arrangements? In light of these issues, how can we build a new commonplace, a new ethics? Must we build a new cosmology, a new epistemology, or can we simply modify our present ones? It is through these questions that we see Latour’s attempt to reintroduce political sciences.
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ENTRE DROIT ET SCIENCES SOCIALES Retour sur l'histoire du mouvement Law and Society

ENTRE DROIT ET SCIENCES SOCIALES Retour sur l'histoire du mouvement Law and Society

ouest se sont orientés vers ce type de savoirs pour dénoncer le « déficit de réalité » du for- malisme et du positivisme juridique 17 . S’appuyant sur la faveur dont sont alors crédi- tés les outils et les méthodes empiriques des sciences sociales, les fondateurs du mouve- ment Law and society importent en effet dans l’analyse du droit ces savoir-faire déjà éprou- vés et validés dans d’autres types d’enquêtes sociologiques. Cette capacité conférée à telle ou telle science sociale de combler le « déficit de réalité » qui est régulièrement reproché au droit renvoie ainsi tout d’abord à la validité qu’on reconnaît à celle-ci dans l’espace public. Mais cette capacité est également étroite- ment liée à la disponibilité de ces savoirs non juridiques pour de nouveaux usages, en l’espèce pour appréhender le droit. En d’autres termes, il convient également de considérer les recompositions préalables de ces disciplines, et notamment les entreprises parti- culières qui s’attachent à faire la preuve de leur utilité : c’est ce qu’indiquent de manière emblématique les travaux de James Hackney et de N. Duxbury à propos de la naissance du mouvement Law and economics au cours des années 1960 18 . Ces auteurs insistent en effet sur les transformations que connaît dès l’après-guerre la science économique avec la formation à l’université de Chicago, sous l’égide de Milton Friedman ou, à moindre titre, de Friedrich von Hayek, d’une économie classique désormais fondée empiriquement et non plus sur une simple option philosophique : une économie dite néo-classique dotée d’ins- truments empiriques de mesure de la validité de ses hypothèses telles que l’efficacité opti- male des situations de concurrence pure et parfaite en matière d’allocation des ressources. Une science économique qui se rend de la sorte disponible pour de nouveaux usages comme en fait la démonstration Gary Becker, autre figure tutélaire de l’université de Chi- cago, qui s’attache à montrer l’utilité de l’analyse néo-classique en dehors de la seule
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Veronica Brady, Caught in the Draught: On Contemporary Australian Culture and Society

Veronica Brady, Caught in the Draught: On Contemporary Australian Culture and Society

Religious faith commands respect and is not a debatable issue, though one can note that in the history of humanity, religious belief does not seem to have made people much better th[r]

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The Platformization of Labor and Society

The Platformization of Labor and Society

As markets detach themselves from individual experience, another perceived failure looms: that of traditional enterprises to create wealth and innovation. Between 1980 and 2000, in the wake of financial capitalism, established firms faced harsh global competition and had progressively given up their usual ‘retain & invest’ models, based on the internalization of assets to develop innovative value-added services and products. Instead, they have opted for narrower ‘downsize & distribute’ business strategies, where principles of lean management coexist with the massive outsourcing of labor and production processes to generate short-term profitability for their shareholders (Segrestin & Hatchuel 2012). During the 2000s, for instance, US top businesses have sacrificed R&D programs by expending up to 94 percent of their revenue in stock-market manipulation, mainly buying back their shares to artificially increase their sales-per-share (Lazonik 2010).
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A bibliography on science and society

A bibliography on science and society

L’accès à ce site Web et l’utilisation de son contenu sont assujettis aux conditions présentées dans le site LISEZ CES CONDITIONS ATTENTIVEMENT AVANT D’UTILISER CE SITE WEB. Report (National Research Council of Canada. Radio and Electrical Engineering Division : ERB), 1970-12

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Science and society: lecture presented to the Simon Fraser Student Society, Burnaby, B. C.

Science and society: lecture presented to the Simon Fraser Student Society, Burnaby, B. C.

Even though a conclusive argument can be made for the support of pure research on the basis of the usefulness of the results for practical purposes it would,in[r]

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Multiverse and the Society

Multiverse and the Society

theorem. So, if we want to have a useful, rather than merely expressive, set theory out of ZF(C), we better stuck with the classical first order version, and then the universe view needs to be defended or defeated. This leads to the the multiverse view, which defends the idea there is no canonical Universe of set theory, rather, there are many models and it is their plurality that gives the real information on the subject. Many authors defend this view, which is well known in set theory, but got known to a wider philosophical audience through the much-cited paper [?] by Joel Hamkins. This beautifully written paper centred on forcing extensions is sometimes over-simplified in applications, which do not always account very carefully for the seeming contradiction that in order to take forcing extensions of a model in the multiverse, this model already needs to be in a larger universe. To understand this, one has to distinguish the internal and the external views. This important point is underlined in Väänänen’s view from [?], where the multiverse consists of a multitude of universes. We are going to take this view, except that for us a model of set theory will not be called a universe but simply a model, and the multiverse of Hamkins and Väänänen will be called Universe. This terminology aligns us with Shelah’s view from [?], where he explains a fine line that differentitaes a pure Platonist from the one that believes in a universe but also in undecidable problems.
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French Civil Society : Historical Background, Present position and Major issues

French Civil Society : Historical Background, Present position and Major issues

Parents influence At least one parent was volunteer : 62% No parents was volunteer : 39% Source : Lionel Prouteau : Enquête CRA/CSA 2017 household of children over 3 is an incentive to volunteering (volunteering in sports, parents- teacher, recreation, disabled children, social tourism CSOs…). Conversely children under 3 are an obstacle to volunteering, especially for their mother. Volunteering grows quickly with the highest level of diploma of the interviewed person; when French diploma are classified according to the international levels of education . The income of the household is significant as well and correlated with education highest diploma : volunteering increases with the income of the household but even in the lower quartile of income distribution it is not so far the average ratio. Volunteering is obviously correlated with the sense of belonging to a religion – the main one, Catholicism, or the minority religions, by declining order : Islam, Protestantism or Jew – and more with the degree of practice of this religion. A regular practice of religion is the most significative variable; it enhances not only volunteering for religious CSOs but for any kind of CSO. The example of their parents’ volunteering influences teenagers as well, since volunteer work of the interviewed is nearly double when one parent at least was a volunteer when s/he was 18. Finally Volunteering is widespread in rural areas and large cities more than in small and middle-sized towns.
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Economy, Society, and Daily Life in the Old Assyrian Period

Economy, Society, and Daily Life in the Old Assyrian Period

Writing and archives Data about daily life come predominantly from the numerous letters found in the archives of merchants and exchanged between the different members of the family, and, more spe- cifically, from the women’s correspondences (Michel 2001; 2008d; Michel, forthcoming). Archives of an Assyrian family could include hundreds or more texts dealing, firstly, with the long‐distance trade, and, secondly, with other topics, such as daily life. They were arranged on shelves along the walls of houses or in wooden boxes and clay jars with clay labels to specify their content (Larsen 2008; Michel 2008e; Veenhof 2003a, 2013). Envelopes of letters and contracts, as well as clay labels, bear cylinder seal imprints as a kind of signature and a mark of ownership; sealed legal texts were thus certified (Larsen 1997b; Tessier 1994). The syllabary in use during the Old Assyrian period is relatively simple, with no more than 150 to 200 signs, and with very few logograms and complex syllabic signs. Letters often seem to have been written by their authors – the need of the merchants to move around may explain why they did not use the services of scribes. Scribal apprentice- ship could take place in the house of a master who taught a small number of pupils (CCT 4, 6e:4–16), but many learned the basics of writing at home, which allowed them to write their own correspondence and personal notes. Tablets perfectly formed and covered with a regular script can be distinguished from others that are awkwardly shaped and roughly written (Michel 2008a).
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A society of hill-climbers

A society of hill-climbers

In terms of hill-climbing, the mutation rate governs the length and the variance of the jumps allowed. Experimen­ tal validation on several large-sized problems strongly sug­ gests that one should rather fix the length of the jumps, and use a fixed number M of bits to mutate per individ­ ual, than adaptively adjust a mutation rate per bit: be the adjustment based on the 1/5th or the Obalek rules (section III-B), it tends to favor small frequent steps over big rare steps1. Further, for optimal and near-optimal values of M

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Éthique et politiques du care. Imaginant une caring society

Éthique et politiques du care. Imaginant une caring society

conscience que, si on deviendra dépendant, on sera assisté. Le support dont on aura besoin au cas où on devra prendre soin d’une personne dépendante 3. La garantie que, si [r]

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The State and “the Information Society”: 25 years of experts' reports

The State and “the Information Society”: 25 years of experts' reports

modern and high-performance digitised network. The services were marketed by a State monopoly according to rules of pricing standardisation that reflected a political rationale of regional planning. Despite the overall failure of the Cable Plan, aimed at continuing this effort by giving major agglomerations broadband fibre optic networks, the development of Minitel, both technically and in terms of its economic model, was to crown the success of the telephone network. At the beginning of the 1990s France took its place as a nation that performed particularly well both technically and industrially, having conceived and set up an original model for marketing the new services engendered by the convergence of information technology and telecommunications.
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An Aging society : opportunity of challenge

An Aging society : opportunity of challenge

The labor force growth rate and investment rate are both annual rates. Data are from Summers and Heston (1990)[r]

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Le colloque annuel de la FSHD Society s’invite à Marseille

Le colloque annuel de la FSHD Society s’invite à Marseille

Depuis 1994, la conférence annuelle organisée par l’association américaine FSH Society a toujours été un moment privilégié pour la communauté des chercheurs et cliniciens travaillant sur la FSHD. Les échanges qui s’y déroulent ont largement contribué à faire avancer la recherche dans cette maladie et permis l’émergence de découvertes fondamentales, tant sur les bases géné- tiques de la FSHD, les mécanismes moléculaires asso- ciés, que sur le développement et le partage de modèles cellulaires et animaux, l’identification de cibles théra- peutiques, et plus récemment, vers le développement d’essais cliniques.
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S.H.A.M.E Society for History as Mandatory Education

S.H.A.M.E Society for History as Mandatory Education

University of Ottawa recently announced the formation of SHAME (Society for History As Mandatory Education). The students are calling on the fédéral government to show leadership by convening a national conférence to discuss éducation. SHAME believes mandatory teaching standards and curriculum for History should be developed and implemented in ail Canadian public schools.

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