Results and discussion
206 PE teachers out of 238 provided usable answers (86.6%). It is noteworthy that 11 subjects were not able to identify any specific action that they proposed specifically to promote physical activity of their students. Other discarded critical incidents were not describing some situation but were proposing potential strategies (“One could do …”) or were not understandable (n = 8). It appeared that some teachers encountered difficulties to remember and describe specific actions aiming to promote physical activity in their students. This underlines that even if PE was traditionally focused on the promotion of physical activity a sizable portion of these school physical educators were not aware of how to do so. In Wallonia as in many other European countries, since the 70’s, PE has mainly focused on sport skills acquisition (De Knop et al., 2005). In parallel, most PE teachers have a competitive sport past, explaining why some of them were not able to describe situations focusing on a more general objective like physical activity promotion. They appear not to have followed the recent shift of society. For them, teaching sport skills contributes most to the development of an activelifestyle by itself. Others encountered difficulties verbalizing what they are doing “naturally” in their classes (Charlier, 2000) but it seems they do work to guarantee the status of PE as the cornerstone of the promotion of physically active lifestyles (Tappe & Burgeson, 2004).
Table 1 shows the proportions of positive answers to the three questions. English students more clearly perceived their school to play a role in promoting an activelifestyle (p ≤ .002 for all agreements; p ≤ .038 for strong agreement – Q2 and Q3; non significant for strong agreement – Q1). Proportions of Belgian students who totally acknowledged the role of their school were particularly low. The English educational system has provided a relatively strong emphasis on health promotion compared to the Belgian education authorities who paid very little attention to this aspect (e.g. in re-organising the missions of school at the end of 20 th century - Ministère de l’Education, 1997). Following the official policy, one of the most important general objectives of Education (German community adopted the same text) remains “to lead all the students to adapt knowledge and to acquire competencies which prepare them for learning throughout life and for taking an active place in economic, social and cultural life”. Only recently, under the pressure of the European Community, have they proposed a new policy focusing on health education (Gouvernement de la Communauté française, 2006).
The reliability and validity of measures of active-living potential were very good. In addition, neighbourhood safety was associated with economic wealth. In neigh- bourhoods where density of destinations was higher, residents’ level of material wealth was lower. However, neighbourhoods with a higher density of destinations also had a greater proportion of persons who reported walking as a method of transportation to get to work. Finally, in neighbourhoods with a greater density of destinations, levels of activity-friendliness and safety were lower.
institutions with the academic university education was stimulated by government
constructed associations. However, due to significant differences in study level/approach, the cooperation only recently been successful.
In the recent past, PE teachers often reported lack of awareness/education of the health-promoting role of PE (Cardon & De Bourdeaudhuij, 2002; Lecomte , Carlier, & Renard, 2002). Therefore, the actual 5-year Master program is needed with specific materials developed to train PE teachers for measuring physical fitness and stimulating activelifestyle. ICT does help, offering instruments (hard and software) to work in a transparent and efficient way. A picture library is offered on the internet (e.g., via Sports Media) for pupils and teachers, plus several programs for motion/performance analysis and learning process of movements (Dartfish, Kandle, sport analyzer, Kinovea …). Exergames implementing a dance revolution (www.konami.com/games/ddr) or Twinkle tiles (www.twinkeltegel.nl …) allow for working with ICT during instruction and for
Abstract—Recently, some active shielding techniques
have been broken (e.g. by FlyLogic). The caveat is that their geometry is easy to guess, and thus they can be bypassed with an affordable price. This paper has two contributions. First of all, it provides a definition of the objectives of shielding, which is seldom found in publicly available sources. Notably, we precise the expected functionality, but also the constraints it must meet to be both manufacturable and secure. Second, we propose an innovative solution based on random shielding. The goal of this shielding is to make the geometry of the shield difficult to recognize, thereby making the “identification” phase of the attack harder than in previous schemes. Also, a proof of the shielding existence for two layers of metal is provided, which guarantees that the generation of the layout will succeed. Finally, we provide real tests of the shield generation algorithm, that show it is computationally tractable even for large areas to protect.
developments (Handbook 1999). These non-contact measurement techniques have found widespread use in heritage, environment modeling, virtual reality, and many industrial fields. Figure 1 shows a classification of non- contact measurement strategies that rely on light waves. In the case of passive techniques (that use ambient light), only visible features with discernable texture gradients like on intensity edges are measured. Laser-based systems are used to structure the environment in order to acquire dense range maps from visible surfaces that are rather featureless to the naked eye or a video camera. Hence, the 3D information becomes relatively insensitive to background illumination and surface texture. This paper reviews the basic principles that underline the majority of active 3D vision systems. Some pointers are presented in order for the reader to become more critical when picking a 3D vision system. The target application is in the context of cultural heritage (Godin 2002). Concluding remarks appear at the end of the paper.
3.1.3. Limitations. The non-local active contours model works well when the size of patches is small. Section 5.2 reports several examples of segmentation using
pixel features and a weighted L 2 distance between patches. The local homogeneity
property of the energy (3.2) enables this model to correctly detect objects which are only locally homogeneous, and can deal with separated objects with different features. Section 5.3 however shows that this un-normalized model suffers from a segmen- tation bias when the patch width τ is large. The segmented region is shifted away from the object boundary with an amount proportional to the patch width τ . This becomes problematic when used with large patches, because of the lack of precision of the resulting segmentation. Large patches are however desirable as the noise level increases, since robustness requires more pixels to evaluate the local homogeneity.
The recent technological advances discussed above have made possible the construction of reliable and accurate three-dimensional cameras. Consequently, both research laboratories and companies have developed many three-dimensional data acquisition systems. These cameras, also known as range cameras, are as diverse as their intended application. We reviewed some of the basic principle behind their operation. From simple trigonometric relations to parameters involved in the digitizing of a 3D object, e.g., sampling density, measurement uncertainty, accuracy issues and scanning strategies. The purpose of measuring 3D objects and sites could be for documentation, inspection or visualisation and possibly all of them. Raster scans, panoramic views and whole field systems are all possible acquisition strategies. The potential of active 3D vision for applications in heritage or as an input to virtualized reality environments was discussed. Real world acquisition and modeling is now possible. Technological advances are such that difficulties are more of a logistical nature than technology per se.
Des progrès considérables ont été réalisés en robotique mobile au cours des dernières décennies et ces robots sont maintenant capables d’effectuer des tâches qu’on croyait au- paravant impossibles. Un facteur critique qui a permis aux robots d’accomplir ces diverses tâches difficiles est leur capacité à déterminer où ils se trouvent dans un environnement donné (localisation). On parvient à une automatisation plus poussée en laissant le robot choisir ses propres actions au lieu de faire appel à un téléopérateur humain. Cependant, la détermination précise de la pose (position + orientation) du robot et l’adaptation de cette capacité à des environnements plus vastes constituent depuis longtemps un défi dans le do- maine de la robotique mobile. Les approches traditionnelles à cette tâche de " localisation active " utilisent un critère théorique de l’information pour la sélection des actions ainsi que des modèles perceptuels faits à la main.
that both global factors collectively contribute to cognitive efficiency, but with a lower explanatory power for allostatic load. Based on these results, we suggest that the global measure of allostatic load is partly determined by the level of cognitive reserve. Indeed, some lifestyle characteristics leading to high cognitive reserve (e.g. sociocultural level, educational level, employement, etc.) could establish living standards that promote low allostatic load (e.g. easy access to medical care, healthy food, low air pollution, etc.) [69, 70]. Another explanation could be that the variability of allostatic load in our sample is restricted in comparison to variability in cognitive reserve as we included participants with relatively good health status (i.e. no smokers, no sleep disorders, no excessive alcohol consumption, no diabetes, etc.), and exclusion criteria were unlikely to have repercussions on the measurement of cognitive reserve. Consequently, allostatic load could have a lower explanatory power due to an indirect selection bias.
76 L IFESTYLE PARTIE 2 : A JOUT D ’ UNE OFFRE COMMERCIALE ET DE BUREAUX
La seconde partie lifestyle du Quartier DIX30, outre son architecture ainsi que ses particularités d’accueillir un second hôtel ainsi qu’une tour à bureaux (60 000 pi²), et aura la spécificité de proposer des commerces haut de gamme. La locomotive de cette partie sera un concept store de deux étages rassemblant sur plus de 60 000 pi² des grands noms de la mode. À proximité de celui-ci se trouverons de nombreuses autres boutiques de créateurs, de vêtements haut de gamme, ainsi que des services exclusifs tels des salons de coiffure tendances, un second spa, un centre de pilates, yoga, etc. de plus de nouveaux restaurants haut de gamme seront présents ainsi que des franchises de prestigieux bars du centre-ville de Montréal. Cette seconde partie lifestyle vient donc comme nous le mentionnait M. Dion lors d’un récent entretien, combler une offre inexistante actuellement de produits et services haut de gamme sur la Rive-Sud. Alors qu’actuellement les vêtements haut de gamme ou de créateurs ne sont disponibles qu’au centre-ville de Montréal, le Quartier DIX30 veut les rendre disponibles aussi sur la Rive-Sud et combler ainsi cette fuite commerciale.
Redundancies between lifestyle variables are clear cut. Thus, to disentangle the relationships, a logistic regression model was run between H-Hg as dependent variable, divided in two discrete categories: low H-Hg ≤ 1.18 µg/g (1st quartile of the distribution) and high H-Hg ≥11.4 µg/g (4th quartile of the distribution) and the same categorical variables analyzed over village accessibility, ethnic group, fish consumption, and subsistence activity. A model without subset selection and without interaction was first run. The model had a normal completion and classified correctly 86.9% of the subjects. Village accessibility and fish consumption produced significant effects but not ethnicity or subsistence activity. Then a hierarchical model with forward selection of terms was used (the term with the largest log- likelihood was entered first) (Table 2). Village accessibility and fish consumption still significantly predicted the classification in high or low H-Hg groups. Indeed, interactions existed between accessibility and fish consumption and subsistence activity and fish consumption.
Study population and design
The data of This study was conducted in the Laboratory OPAPS” Physical Education Institute” the University of Mostaganem for academic years 2014-2015. As we have tested the sample based on the field test (Nick Draper, Helen Marshall, 2014) to esteem their ability to physical effort based on vo2max power anaerobic and leg explosive (VJ and Power), as we have measured blood pressure and heartbeat to determine the impact of lifestyle on various health outcomes of retirees and worker university security sector.
Over and above clinical diagnosis and mechanisms understanding, the development of new therapeutic strategies is urgently needed. As mentioned above, AD is a multifactorial disease that likely results from the complex interplay of multiple pathological pro- cesses, under the influence of internal and external determinants. The repeated failure of clinical trials strengthens the need to develop global strategies that may prevent, delay, and/or downregulate several of these AD pathological processes. In this context, there is a growing interest in the impact of modifiable environmental or lifestyle factors not only on AD but also more generally on cognition, mental health, and wellbeing in the aging population. Neuroimaging par- ticipates in these rising developments by providing tools to test the relationships between these factors and biomarkers of aging and AD and to monitor the effects of interventions based on lifestyle changes.