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Academic year: 2022


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The efficiency of the machine depends on the precision of its construction.

Precise construction results in an efficient



• The first sentence uses the nouns ‘efficiency’ and

‘precision’. The second uses adjectives: ‘precise’ and


• Although the meaning is similar the first sentence is more formal. Effective academic writing requires

accurate use of both nouns and adjectives



Noun Adjective Noun Adjective approximation approximate particularity particular superiority superior reason reasonable strategy strategic synthesis synthetic

politics political economy economic/al industry industrial culture cultural

exterior external average average height high reliability reliable

heat hot strength strong

confidence confident truth true

width wide probability probable

necessity necessary length long

danger dangerous relevance relevant



Economics is a demanding undergraduate degree course. (academic subject)

The Greek economy is heavily in debt. (national economy, countable)

Economy is needed to reduce the deficit. (saving money, uncountable)



• A range of nouns is used to express common ideas in academic writing:

Political geography is an interesting field.

The concept of class was first discussed in the eighteenth century.

Drucker developed a new approach in his second book.


TASK: Look for the adjectives or nouns of the following words

process organisation machine theory

event types

worry answer area views

cause feature



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