AERONOMICA ACTA

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I N S T I T U T D ' A E R O N O M I E S P A T I A L E D E B E L G I Q U E 3 - A v e n u e C i r c u l a i r e

B • 1180 B R U X E L L E S

A E R O N O M I C A A C T A

A - N° 2 4 7 - 1 9 8 2

On the choice of boundary conditions for the matching of kinetic to hydrodynamic polar wind models

by

M . S C H E R E R

B E L G I S C H I N S T I T U U T V O O R R U I M T E - A E R O N O M I E 3 - R i n g l a a n

B • 1 1 8 0 B R U S S E L

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\

FOREWORD

T h e article "On the Choice of Boundary Conditions for the Matching of Kinetic to Hydrodynamic Polar Wind Models" will be published in the "Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences de l'Académie Royale de Belgique".

A V A N T - P R O P O S

Le travail intitué "On the Choice of Boundary Conditions for the Matching of Kinetic to Hydrodynamic Polar Wind Models" sera publié dans le Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences de l'Académie Royale de Belgique.

VOORWOORD

De tekst getiteld "On the Choice of Boundary Conditions for the Matching of Kinetic to Hydrodynamic Polar Wind Models" zal gepubli- ceerd worden in het "Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences de l'Académie

Royale de Belgique".

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ON T H E C H O I C E OF B O U N D A R Y C O N D I T I O N S FOR T H E M A T C H I N G OF K I N E T I C T O H Y D R O D Y N A M I C POLAR WIND MODELS

b y

M. SCHERER

A b s t r a c t

Kinetic polar wind models based on an asymmetric anisotropic Maxwellian at t h e exobase depend on f o u r parameters which in principle can be determined by imposing f i x e d values f o r t h e number d e n s i t y , the flow speed, t h e t e m p e r a t u r e and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e anisotropy at t h e exo- base. I t is shown however t h a t not any a r b i t r a r y set of values f o r these quantities can be chosen b u t t h a t some f o r b i d d e n regions do

A

e x i s t .

Résumé

Un modèle cinétique du v e n t polaire, basé sur une d i s t r i b u t i o n de

vitesse maxwellienne asymétrique et anisotropique, dépend de q u a t r e

paramètres q u i , en p r i n c i p e , p e u v e n t ê t r e déterminés en f i x a n t à l'exo-

base les valeurs de la densité, de la vitesse d'écoulement, de la tempé-

r a t u r e et de l'anisotropie. Il est démontré cependant que ces q u a t r e

valeurs ne peuvent pas ê t r e choisies a r b i t r a i r e m e n t , mais qu'il existe

certains domaines d é f e n d u s .

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Samenvatting

Kinetische poolwindmodellen steunend op een asymmetrische aniso- trope Maxwellverdeling aan de exobasis, bevatten vier parameters die in principe bepaald kunnen worden door het toekennen van een welbe- paalde waarde aan de deeltjesdichtheid, de stroomsnelheid, de tempera- t u u r en de temperatuursanisotropie aan de exobasis. Er wordt aange- toond dat een willekeurige keuze van waarden voor deze grootheden niet

kan gemaakt worden, maar dat er verboden gebieden bestaan.

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1. I N T R O D U C T I O N

It is well known that in the polar regions of the Earth the light ions ( H

+

and He

+

) escape along the open geomagnetic field lines. T h i s phenomena called the Polar Wind ( A x f o r d , 1968) has been described originally by means of a hydrodynamic approach (Banks and Holzer, 1968). Later on a kinetic approach was developed (Lemaire and Scherer, 1970) and it was shown that both methods are complementary (Donahue, 1971; Lemaire and Scherer, 1973) : the hydrodynamic equations are valid in the collision dominated region called barosphere, whereas the kinetic approach is appropriate in the collisionfree exosphere. These two regions are separated hy a small transition region in which the number of collisions rapidly decreases with height. T h i s intermediate region which has a thickness of only a few scale heights, is generally neglected by assuming that the barosphere and the exosphere are separated by a sharply defined surface called the exobase or baro- pause.

Lemaire and Scherer (1975) calculated a continuous polar wind model by matching at the exobase the solutions of the hydrodynamic Navier-Stokes equations for the hydrogen ions, to a simple kinetic model. For this purpose it was assumed that the velocity distribution of the hydrogen ions was given by a truncated Maxwellian in which only pitch angles in the upward loss cone were taken into account. Although the calculated number density, escape f l u x , temperature, temperature anisotropy and energy flux were continuous functions of altitude, a major shortcoming of the model was that due to the assumption concerning the velocity distribution at the exobase, the hydrogen temperature anisotropy always equals the physical unrealistic constant value 1 - § . n

Later on Scherer (1978) developped a more sophisticated kinetic

polar wind model, based on a truncated asymmetric anisotropic

Maxwellian

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f [ ro, v ( rQ) ] = n "3 / 2 N p j/ 2 exp[-p| ((vn - u)2 - v2 ] (1)

w i t h 0 „ = m/2kTu ; = m/Zkl^ (2)

where r is the radial distance of the exobase, v ( r ) is the velocity o o vector at the exobase of a particle with mass m, v|( and vA are the

components of this vector respectively parallel and p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the geomagnetic field/ k is the Boltzmann constant.

N, u, Tjj and TA are f o u r parameters related to the number d e n s i t y n( sQ) , the flow speed W(Sq), the temperature T (Sq) , and the temperature anlsotropy a ( sQ) at the exobase, t h r o u g h the relations ( S c h e r e r , 1978) :

n(sQ) = | N exp(- U2) e r f e x ( - U) (3)

w(s ) = J c [ 1 + V" U e r f e x ( - U ) ] / e r f e x ( - U) (4) o z o

T

(

S

o>

=

1

T

1

(2+t) e r f e x ( - U) - „ p ) - % tU / e r f e x ( - U)

a ( so) = t 1 - 2 U

Vn e r f e x ( -

U)

n

[e

r

fex(-U)]

2

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(7) w i t h U = p^/2 u ; cq = (8kTH/nni)1 / 2 ; t = T„ /Tx ;

oo

2 2 f 2

e r f e x ( z ) = ^ exp(z ) J exp(-y ) dy

Assuming that at the exobase the number d e n s i t y , the flow speed, the temperature and the temperature anisotropy are known quantities the system of equations (3) to (6) can be used to determine the para- meters N, U, T|j and TA . Once that these values are f i x e d any moment of the velocity d i s t r i b u t i o n in the exosphere is assigned ( S c h e r e r , 1978). In o r d e r to have physical acceptable solutions however, the values of N, T „ and TA must be positive and U must be real.

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In Sec. 2 it will be shown t h a t as a consequence of these limita- tions not any set of values n ( s

Q

) ,

W ( SQ) , T ( Sq)

and a ( s

Q

) can be chosen as boundary conditions at the exobase, but t h a t t h e r e exist forbidden values which do not give physical acceptable solutions. Final-

l y , in Sec. 3 to 5 the choice of the boundary conditions at the exobase, for kinetic polar wind models based respectively on an asymmetric Maxwellian (T

|(

= T

x

, U t 0 ) , a bi-Maxwellian ( T

t f

# T ^ , U = 0 ) , and a Maxwellian ( T „ = T

A

, U = 0 ) will also be considered.

2. DISCUSSION OF T H E SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS ( 3 ) to ( 6 )

S t r a i g h t f o r w a r d calculations show t h a t the system of equations ( 3 ) to ( 6 ) is equivalent to

N = 2 n ( s

Q

) exp (U )/erfex(-U) w

2

( s )

T - O

" ~

2 k

' *

2

( u >

3T(s ) T = °

1

2 + a(s )

3T(s ) a(s )

T

.« = g(U) 2 + a(s ) o

where the following shorthand notations were used :

*

( u )

= ^

u +

^ïàc- U)

u

g ( U )

-

1

• erfex(-U)

2

71 erfex(-U) Equation ( 1 0 ) immediately yields the parameter value T^

Elimination of T

| (

betw transcendental equation

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(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

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Elimination of T

| (

between the equations ( 9 ) and ( 1 1 ) , produces the

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g(U) 6k a ( s ) T(s )

=

_ . 2 • ( 1 4 )

i

2

( U )

n m

2 + a ( s ) w (s ) o o

from which U can be d e t e r m i n e d . Once t h e solution U k n o w n , t h e values of N and T „ a r e calculated b y means of r e s p e c t i v e l y t h e equations ( 8 ) and ( 9 ) or ( 1 1 ) .

I t can be shown t h a t f o r real values of U t h e l e f t - h a n d side of equation ( 1 4 ) is a monotonic decreasing f u n c t i o n , and t h a t

l i m U->-»

8(U) - 2 . 8 ( 0 )

=

j . 2

i

2

( U )

n

' i

2

( 0 )

71

( 1 5 )

lin,

=

o

U-»+oo

T h i s yields t h e condition

a ( s ) T ( s ) m

0 < .

x

° • < r r ( 1 6 )

2+*<Bo> w ( s ) 3 k

o

which shows t h a t at t h e exobase t h e flow speed, t h e t e m p e r a t u r e and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e anisotropy can not be chosen a r b i t r a r l y .

For a f i x e d value of W ( S

q

) , t h e i n e q u a l i t y ( 1 6 ) expresses t h a t in t h e [ T ( s ) , a ( s ) ] - plane only t h e points in t h e region below t h e

o o p

orthogonal h y p e r b o l a a ( s

Q

) T ( S

q

) = w ( S

q

) [ 2 + a ( s

Q

) ] can be used as b o u n d a r y conditions at t h e exobase. T h i s is i l l u s t r a t e d in f i g . 1 in t h e case of h y d r o g e n ions, f o r W ( S

q

) = 2; 2 . 5 ; 3; . . . , 10 km s .

On the o t h e r hand t h e i n e q u a l i t y ( 1 6 ) can also be studied in t h e

[ a ( s

Q

) , w ( s

Q

) ] - p l a n e f o r a f i x e d value of T ( S

q

) . T h i s is i l l u s t r a t e d in

f i g . 2 in t h e case of h y d r o g e n ions, f o r T ( S

q

) = 1000, 2500, 5000, 7500

and 10000 K. O n l y t h e points above t h e c u r v e s correspond to acceptable

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a (s

e

)

Fig. 1.- Only the points [a(sQ), T(Sq)] below the orthogonal hyperbolae corresponding to the values W(SQ) = 2;

, 2 . 5 ; 3; . . . ; 10 km s \ are suitable boundary conditions at the exobase, for kinetic hydrogen polar wind models basepl on an anisotropic asym- metric Maxwellian.

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Fig. 2 . - Only the points [ a ( s

Q

) , W ( S

q

) ] above the curves

corresponding to the values T ( s ) = 1000, 2500,

5000, 7500 and 10000 K are suitable boundary

conditions at the exobase, for kinetic hydrogen

polar wind models based on an anisotropic asym-

metric Maxwellian. The dotted lines correspond to

the horizontal asymptotes of the curves.

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als

e

)

Fig. 3 . - T h e points [ a ( s

Q

) , T ( S

q

) ] below the orthogonal r hyperbolae corresponding to the values w ( s ) = 2;

3; . . . ; 10 km s , yield positive values for the

asymmetry parameter in the velocity distribution at

the exobase.

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boundary conditions. For flow speeds at the exobase exceeding the 1 / 2

asymptotic value W(S

q

) = [ 3 k T ( s

Q

) / m ] ( i l l u s t r a t e d by the horizontal dotted lines in f i g . 2 ) , t h e r e is no limitation on the choice of the temperature anisotropy.

Up till now any real value of U was considered. If however, one is only interested in positive values of the parameter U, it follows from

( 1 4 ) and ( 1 5 ) t h a t the following condition must be satisfied : a(s ) T(s )

0 < t — - — 7 — r • - r -

2

- < J r in - 2 ) ( 1 7 )

2 + a ( s

o

}

w (s )

6 k

o

In the case of hydrogen ions inequality ( 1 7 ) reduces to

T ( SQ) < 2 2 . 8 8

W

2

( s

o

) 1 + 2

a CO ( 1 8 )

where W(S

q

) is expressed in km s and T ( S

- 1 q

) in K.

Only the regions below the orthogonal hyperbolae illustrated in Fig. 3 for w ( s ) = 2; 3 ; . . . , 10 km s , yield boundary conditions T ( s ) and a ( s

Q

) for which positive values of U can be f o u n d .

3. CASE OF AN ASYMMETRIC MAXWELLIAN

In the special case of an asymmetric Maxwellian, i . e . T^ = 1 ^ = T and U * 0, only 3 parameters N , T and U have to be determined.

T h e r e f o r e the number density n ( s

Q

) , the flow speed W ( S

q

) , the temperature T ( s ) , and the temperature anisotropy a ( s

Q

) can no longer be chosen as boundary conditions at the exobase, but only 3 of these four quantities can be used to fix the parameters.

a. Assuming t h a t n ( s

Q

) , W(S

q

) and T ( s

Q

) are g i v e n , the system of

equations ( 3 ) to ( 5 ) is equivalent to the system build up by ( 8 ) , ( 9 )

and

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3T(s )

T =

2 + g(U) ' ( « )

Elimination of T = T„ between (9) and (19) yields a transcendental equation in U

, . T ( s )

2 + g ( U ) _ 6 k o

(20) i

2

( U ) ^ w

2

(s )

o

T h e left-hand side of equation (20) is a monotonic decreasing function of U. Moreover it can be shown that

l i m

2 _ ^ ( U )

= +

, . 2 + 8(0)

=

„ 2

U->-<*>

— _ = „ ; 2

3

" n

JT(u) i (0)

71

l i m

2 ^ 1

= 0

- T ( U )

U-»+<»

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As a consequence of this any value of the flow speed and the tempera- ture at the exobase will give a real value for the parameter U. T h e values for N and T follow then immediately from the equations (8) and (19).

It is worth-while to note that in this case, the temperature aniso- t r o p y at the exobase can not be chosen a r b i t r a r l y , but will be given by

a ( sQ) = g ( U ) (22)

Straightforward calculations show that g ( U ) is a monotonic in- creasing function of U with

lim g ( U ) = 0 a n d l i m g ( U ) = 1 . ( 2 3 )

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(

T h e r e f o r e kinetic polar wind models based on an asymmetric Maxwellian will always have t e m p e r a t u r e anisotropics at the exobase smaller than 1.

From ( 2 0 ) and ( 2 1 ) follows also t h a t in the [ T ( S

q

) , w ( s

Q

) ] - p l a n e t h e parabole

t(® ) = o ok o

m w 2

(

s

)

divides the plane in two regions : t h e domain below t h e parabola corresponds to positive U - v a l u e s whereas the domain above corresponds to negative U - v a l u e s . T h i s is illustrated in f i g . 4 f o r t h e case of h y -

2

d r o g e n ions. Note also t h a t since g ( 0 ) = 1 - - , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e aniso- t r o p y a ( s

Q

) satisfies t h e inequalities

1 - - < a ( s ) < 1 f o r U > 0 n o

(25) 0 < a ( s ) < 1 - - f o r U < 0

o 71

b . Assuming t h a t n ( s

Q

) , W ( S

q

) and a ( s

Q

) are given the system of equations ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) and ( 6 ) is now equivalent to ( 8 ) , ( 9 ) and ( 2 2 ) . In o r d e r to obtain a real U - v a l u e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e anisotropy must be smaller than 1. Once U known, t h e parameters N and T = T „ follow from t h e equations ( 8 ) and ( 9 ) . T h e t e m p e r a t u r e at t h e exobase can not be chosen a r b i t r a r y b u t will be given by ( 1 9 ) .

c . Assuming t h a t n ( s

Q

) , T ( S

q

) and a ( s

Q

) are g i v e n , t h e system of

equations ( 3 ) , ( 5 ) and ( 6 ) is equivalent to ( 8 ) , ( 1 9 ) and ( 2 2 ) . For

values of a ( s

Q

) smaller than 1, t h e solution of ( 2 2 ) yields a real value

U , w h e r e a f t e r N and T follow from t h e equations ( 8 ) and ( 1 9 ) . T h e

flow speed at t h e exobase can not be chosen a r b i t r a r y b u t will be g i v e n

by ( 2 0 ) .

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Fig. 4 . - T h e points [ w ( s ) , T ( s ) ] below ( a b o v e ) t h e p a r a -

bola correspond to positive ( n e g a t i v e ) values for

the asymmetry parameter in the case of kinetic

polar wind models based on an asymmetric

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4. CASE OF A BI-MAXWELL I AN

In the special case of a bi-Maxwellian ( i . e . T „ * T

A

, U = 0 ) the velocity distribution ( 1 ) depends on 3 parameters, N , T „ and T

A

which can be determined by means of t h r e e of the four equations of the system ( 3 ) to ( 6 ) .

a. Assuming t h a t n ( s

Q

) , w ( s

q

) and T ( s

q

) are g i v e n , the system (3) to ( 5 ) is equivalent to :

N = 2 n ( s

Q

) (26)

T„ = g w

2

( s

o

) (27)

T = ±

T

A 2 3 T ( s

o

) - ^ (71-2) w

2

( s

o

) (28) Since only positive values of T

A

can be considered, the values T ( s ) and w ( s

q

) in the region below the parabola T ( s

q

) = ^ (n-2) w

2

( s

q

) can not be used as boundary conditions at the exobase. This is illustrated in f i g . 5 for the case of hydrogen ions. T h e temperature anisotropy at the exobase can not be chosen but is given by

a(s ) = ( 1 - I ) If- (29) O 71 J-x

b . Assuming that n ( s

Q

) , w ( s

q

) and a ( s

Q

) are given the system of equations ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) and ( 6 ) is equivalent to ( 2 6 ) , ( 2 7 ) and ( 2 9 ) .

Elimination of T between ( 2 7 ) and ( 2 9 ) yields

2(

^

w (s )

^ • a t" - » T u t o

Hence the parameters N, T„ and T

x

follow immediately from the

equations ( 2 6 ) , ( 2 7 ) and ( 3 0 ) .

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Fig. 5.- Only the points [W(SQ), T(Sq)] above the parabola are suitable boundary conditions at the exobase, for kinetic hydrogen polar wind models based on a bi-Maxwellian.

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c . Assuming t h a t n ( s

Q

) , T ( S

q

) and a ( s

Q

) a r e g i v e n , t h e system of equations ( 3 ) , ( 5 ) and ( 6 ) is e q u i v e l e n t to ( 2 6 ) ,

3T(s ) o

and ( 2 9 ) . Elimination of T

±

between ( 2 9 ) and ( 3 1 ) yields a ( s )

T = T

( s ) ( 3 2 )

'I n - 2 2 + a ( s ) o o

Hence the parameters N , T

| f

and T

x

follow immediately from t h e equations ( 2 6 ) , ( 3 2 ) and ( 3 1 ) .

5. CASE OF A MAXWELLIAN

In the special case of a Maxwellian ( i . e . T„ = T

A

= T , II = 0 ) t h e velocity d i s t r i b u t i o n ( 1 ) depends only on 2 parameters N and T . As mentionned e a r l i e r t h e t e m p e r a t u r e anisotropy at t h e exobase can no longer be chosen f r e e l y b u t equals 1 - - . 2

a. Assuming t h a t n ( s

Q

) and W ( S

q

) a r e given t h e parameters N and T = T „ follow from ( 2 6 ) and ( 2 7 ) ; T ( S

q

) can not be chosen b u t will be g i v e n b y

T

<

S

o> = f k

( 3 n

"

2 ) w 2 ( s

o

} ( 3 3 )

b . Assuming t h a t n ( s

Q

) and T ( S

q

) are g i v e n t h e parameters N and T follow from ( 2 6 ) and

3n T(s ) 3ti - L

w ( s

Q

) can not be chosen b u t is related to T ( S

q

) by equation ( 3 3 ) .

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6. C O N C L U S I O N S

Although kinetic polar wind models, based on an anisotropic asym-

metric Maxwellian depending on f o u r p a r a m e t e r s , allow to f i x t h e

number d e n s i t y n ( s

Q

) , t h e flow speed

W ( SQ) ,

t h e t e m p e r a t u r e

T ( SQ)

and

the t e m p e r a t u r e anisotropy a ( s

Q

) as b o u n d a r y conditions, at t h e e x o -

base, these quantities can not be chosen a r b i t r a r y , b u t have to s a t i s f y

condition ( 1 6 ) in o r d e r to obtain physical acceptable results in t h e

exosphere.

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R E F E R E N C E S

A X F O R D , W . I . , T h e polar wind and the terrestrial helium b u d g e t , J.

G e o p h y s . R e s . , 73, 6855-6859, 1968.

B A N K S , P . M . , and T . E . H O L Z E R , T h e polar wind, J. G e o p h y s . R e s . , 73, 6846-6854, 1968.

D O N A H U E , T . M . , Polar ion flow : Wind or breeze ?, R e v . G e o p h y s . Space P h y s . , 9, 1-9, 1971.

L E M A I R E , J. and M. S C H E R E R , Model of the polar ion-exosphere, Planet. Space S c i . , 18, 103-120, 1970.

L E M A l R E , J. and M. S C H E R E R , Kinetic models of the solar and polar winds, R e v . G e o p h y s . Space P h y s . , 11_> 427-468, 1973.

L E M A I R E , J. and M. S C H E R E R , Contribution à l'étude des ions dans l'ionosphère polaire, Aeronomica Acta A - 147, pp. 101, 1975.

S C H E R E R , M . , Open ion-exosphere with an asymmetric anisotropic

velocity distribution, Bull. Cl. Sci. Acad. Roy. B e l g . , 64, 539-

561, 1978.

Figure

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