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(G.rhwa l and Kumaon) Or.1 Epic Poetry in the Central Himalayas


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It is our pleasure 10 announce that the production of the Bulletin will be taken over by our French colleagues from the CNRS at Meudon. starting with the next issue (No. 10), for a period of two years. The editorial board will include Pascaie Dollfus, Comeille Jest, Marie Lecomte-Tilouine, Anne de Sales and Gerard Toffin, while the present editors will continue to be involved. The responsibility for editing and producing the Bulletin is thus beginning to rotate within Europe, as was originally planned. There is a good chance that after two years the Bulletin will be produced al SOAS in London. So we hope that it will develop to become a truly European publication.

After October 15, 1995. contributors are asked 10 send their manuscripts either directly to the following address:

Dr. Marie Lecomte· Tilouine

European Bulletin of Himalayan Research UPR 299, C.N.R.S.

I, place Aristide Briand 92195 Meudon Cedex France

or, as usual, 10 the contributing editor of their country. Also, matters of subscription should be sent to Paris (see subscription infonnation sheet enclosed).

Thanks to all who have filled in and returned the questionnaire which we sent with our subscription reminder. The response was basically positive, reconfinning our general policy. There were suggestions to extend the review section (which is in fact planned) and 10 introduce a letters section (so we do encourage you 10 send letters). Our French colleagues are planning further improvements, and we are confident that the Bulletin will grow steadily as a topical English language news bulletin and discussion forum for scholars working on the Himalayas.


Or.1 Epic Poetry in the Central Himalayas (G.rhwal and Kumaon)

Claus Peter Zollcr

Leavitt, John. 1988. "A Mahlibhlirata Story from the Kumaon Hills."

Himalayan Research Bulletin 7,2, pp. 1·12.

Leavitt, John. 1991. "Himalayan Variations on an Epic Theme." In: Arvind Shanna (ed.), Essays on the Mahlibhiirata. Leiden: Brill, pp. 444-474.

Meissner, Konrad. 1985. "Malushahi and Rajula. A ballad from Kumaiin (India) as sung by Gopi Das." (Part I: Kumaiini lext, translation and appendices; Pan n: Commentary; Pan Ill: Glossary; I sound cassette.) In: Nellindische SltuiiclI 10, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Sax, William S. 1991. "Ritual and Perfonnance in the Par.t4avalila of Garhwal." In: Arvind Shanna (ed.), Essays on the Mahiibharata. Leiden:

Brill, pp. 274·295

Upreti. Mohan n.d. Malushahi - the ballad of Kumaon. New Delhi: Sangeet Natak Akademi.

Even though non-European literature is no longer dismissed as folklore, oral poetry still is widely treated as a special fonn of literature, as tenns like "oral text" or "folk literature" illustrate. Oral poetry is generally associated with such expressions as "anonymous," "traditional," "simple," and "authentic";

many regard it as a precursor 10 true literature, and thus a survival of something original. This promotes a sort of alienation from this poetic foml, by treating it as somehow inferior to the printed word. It is then the task of scholars to mitigate the alienation thus created. I want here to introduce brienya few approaches through which oral fonns of poetry, in particular oral epics from the central Himalayas (Kumaon and Garhwal), are made

"intelligible" to outsiders.

Oral poetry in the central Himalayas is still a dominant art fonn. although its existence is now threatened by the new media and by radical social change. The majority of books about oral poetry are modeled either on British folklore studies (the paradigm here is HimaJayall Folklore. by Oakley and GairoJa) or, in the case of Indian authors, on the systematics and tenninology of the Sanskrit Kavya Slislras. Thus, both approaches generally do not use indigenous lemlinology and classification. The first oral epic I want to introduce, M aliltiihJ R iijuili, is listed by Oakley and Gairola under the heading

"Legends of Heroes," whereas it is classified by the Indian folklorist Calak as a prar:wy glithfi 'love song' (1973: 258),1 and by Meissner as a "ballad" (see below).

This epic is in fact the only one from the central Himalayas2 which has been "completely" transcribed and translated, by Meissncr (1985). The


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