Caractérisation du cerveau humain : application à la biométrie

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Submitted on 15 Feb 2013

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biométrie

Kamel Aloui

To cite this version:

Kamel Aloui. Caractérisation du cerveau humain : application à la biométrie. Autre. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. �NNT : 2012PEST1058�. �tel-00788834�

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479AC +*C ,E473AE39AC FE37FFAAC 9FC B(B3:6AC 7653789A+C 72266ABC ABC )EABB9BCAFRA6AF32CAC8577E237FCA3C7AF377E237F+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CIC 479AC+!C*C7B37 937FBCABCBEABCAC7BB7672735CABC76)B3A9BCA3CABC9377B23A9BC 57376ABC9FCB(B3:6AC 7653789ACAFC6AC8577E237F+C9B3237FC9CBA97CAC 5E7B7FCA3CABC3295C4,0CA3C400+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CC 479AC+EC*C62CE9 AC01CAC0AEA78AC1)A237FC422E3A7B37ECB+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++C!C 479AC+HC*C9 ABC1C9CD$CD(B3A6CD+"C)9CACS4&0&C% ACDA3C4TCA3C)9C 75AF3BC27346ABCACAEFF27BB2FEAC2E72ACOEP+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CHC 479AC+DC*C22E357B3789ABC 7653789ABC*CD7F239A2CA6)A7F3ABC7732AB2C56537AC AC2C627F2C77B2C537FA2C87B2A2CA7A2C,.2C62E4ACOMP+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CDC 479AC+MC*C%23BC9C62E45CABC75AF3ABC62735BC 7653789ABCO!P+C++++++++++++++++++CMC 479AC+C*CD(B3:6ACFA8A95CEAF32C49627F2C89ACB27332ACOEHP+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CCC 479AC +IC *C 6ABC 37BC 2EABC ABC 4567B)4:ABC E55 295+C &FC 4293C #C 29E4AC *C 2EAC B9)52352ACUC&FC4293C#C73AC*C2EAC7F57A9ACUC&FC 2BC*C2C2EAC6572FACOEDP+C!"C 479AC +CC *C 4A67FC 9FC EA8A29C 49627F+C J9AC F32AC #C 29E4A+C J9AC EF2AC #C 73ACOEDP+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++C!C 479AC+"C*C6ABC65F7FABCBF3CEFB37395ABCAC37BCE9E4ABCAF8A))2F3CACEA8A29C*C 2C)7A76:A2C22E4FVACA3C2C9A76:ACOE!P2OEHP+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++C!!C 479AC +C *C 58A))A6AF3C 9C EA8A29C 49627FC B9782F3C 9FAC B9EEABB7FC 532)ABC A6 (FF27ABCA3C?32ABC89ACB27332A+C6ABCABB7FBCAC2C)A67:AC7FA2CA237BC 295C532)ABCA6 (FF27ABCOH"P+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++C!EC 479AC +!C*C 177FABC ABC )7BBA6AF3BC E37E295C BAFC 4()34:BAC J2F7&BBAF+C 2C 17237FC ABC FA9FABC AC 2C )289AC E37E2AC AC FC ABC EA9ABC 72ABC 272AB+C C 6ABC 25FABC 233A7FAF3C A9BC B39E39ABC E7 AB+C ABC 67EEABC AC 3AFB7FBC A3C AC E6)ABB7FC AF3AC EABC 25FABC 2))E4AF3C ABC 57FBC 3A6AF3C 7F3AEFFAE35AB+C AC )9B2C F27BB2FEAC ABC 2>3ABC WC BAC 58A))AF3C ABC (7+C C EC 0A)5BAF3237FC AC 2))2737FC ABC )7BBA6AF3BC 775BC 8ABC A5357A9C 57FBC 3A6AF3C EFFAE35ABC A3C ABC )7BBA6AF3BC 775BC 8ABC 7F357A9C 57FBC 27 A6AF3C EFFAE35AB+C C 0A)5BAF3237FC AC 2C 67237FC ABC )7BBA6AF3BC E37E295C7F97B2F3C9FCAA3CACE7B27A6AF3C897C3AFC#C537AC25AC272C7FABC AFC)7F375BCOHHP+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++C!DC 479AC+EC*C9B3237FCA)5BAF32F3C2C6AC9FCB7FCAFC)FA9+CCX6AC9C B7FCUC!C 2FE4ABC2352ABCUCEC)7BCAC)2BB2ACOHIP+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++C!C 479AC +HC *C 9B3237FC AC 2C 8272 7735C 2F236789AC ABC B39E39ABC E37E2ABC B9C CC EA8A295C 75AF3B+C %9C  BA8AC EA33AC 8272 7735C 2F236789A2C ABC B7FBC E37E295C F3C 535C 53789A35BC 293623789A6AF3C 872C 2C )23A6AC 7E7AAC 7 AC -27F87B2Y,F2367B3COD"P2CE4289ACE9A9CEAB)F2F3C#C9FCB7FC75AF3+C!IC

(12)

62ACF32AC)2C&%C9FCEA8A29+C6ABCE9A9BC9ABCA3C<29FABCA:3AF3C9FAC 2E378735CE55 2AC5A85A2C2BC89ACABCE9A9BC8A3ABCA3C A9ABCA)5BAF3AF3C9FAC 27 AC 2E378735+C ,9C 677A9C *C 9FAC 762AC 7BE2FFAC 9C EA8A29+C @C 329E4AC *C 9FAC 762AC01CE55 2A+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CE"C 479AC+MC*C75AF3ABC762ABC2E897BABC)2C01C*C2C62AC)F55AC+C C62AC )F55AC!+CEC79B7F+CC427+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CE!C 479AC!+C*C%7FE7)ACAC2))E4AC58A))5AC)9CA532E37FC9CEA8A29C#C)237C 9FC896AC01CE55 2A+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CECC 479AC!+!C*C%7FE7)ACAC2CFE37FC873ABBACFF5AC)2C589237FC!+H+C++++++++++++++++++++++++CHEC 479AC!+EC*CQ7B3266ACA237C#C9FAC762AC01CE55 2AC89653789AC)F55AC 2C6F32F3CABC)B737FBCA2378ABC295C75AF3BC37BB9BC9CEA8A29CAFC5E4AACAC F78A295CAC7B+Cth1C9FCBA97C 2BCA3Cth2C9FCBA97C4293+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CHMC 479AC!+HC*C9B3237FCABC75AF3ABC532)ABC9C)EABB9BCAC)57BA6AF3237FC9C 896AC01C)9CEFB397AC9FC62B89AC 7F27ACEC9CEA8A29+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++CHC 479AC!+DC*C@C29E4A2CB92EAC7F7372AC9CEA8A29C897CEAB)FC29C62B89AC 7F27AC EC9CEA8A29CA3C#C73AC6F3ACAC5B9323CACEAC62B89ACB9C9FACE9)ACAFC!+ C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CHC 479AC!+MC*CD92EAC7F2AC9CEA8A29C 3AF9AC2):BC9FACBA6AF3237FC9FC896AC 01CE55 2A+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CHCC 479AC!+*CA9)AC)7FE7)2AB+C9)AC01C2572AC9CEA8A29C2E897BAC#C9FAC7B32FEAC 75AC)9C39BCABC7F7879BC#C5397A+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CD"C 479AC !+I*C 4FE37FFA6AF3C 9C B(B3:6AC 7653789AC #C 2BAC ABC E22E357B3789ABC 3A5392ABC9CEA8A29CA-27FAB+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CD"C 479AC !+C*C ,))576237FC A7)3789AC 9C EA8A29C BA6AF35+C @C 29E4AC AE9)AC )7FE7)2ABC 9C EA8A29+C ,9C 677A92C 62B89AC 7F27AC EAB)F2F3+C @C 73A2C A7)BAC897C57673ACACEA8A29+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CDC 479AC !+"*C 057FC 7F35>3C 9C EA8A29C B9BC 2C 6AC 9FAC 2FAC A7)3789AC 576735AC)2CABCA95CA7)BAB*C7F3AFACA3CA53AFAC28AECFCGCE"C)75AB+C+++++++++++++++++++CD!C 479AC !+*C 1534AC AC F627B237FC A09 AC D4AA3BC 58A))5AC )2C '4FC 2962FC O!HPC 22)3AC 2FBC AC E2BC A7)3789A+C 2FB6AC E4289AC )7F3C 2FBC 2C 2FACA7)3789AC#C9FACF98AACEFF5A+C4289AC7FACAC762ACF627B5AC EAB)FC#C9FC2FFA29CA7)3789ACB9C2C 2FACA7)3789A+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CDEC 479AC !+!C *C 9B3237FC 9C )EABB9BC AC F627B237FC AC 2C 57FC 7F35>3C 9C EA8A29+C 329E4A*C 2C 2FAC A7)3789AC 9C EA8A29C 28AEC ABC 5E42F37FBC ABC 2FFA295CA7)3789ABC89ACF9BC2FBCABCF627BA+C@C73A*C62ACF627B5AC AC30×300)75AB+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CDEC 479AC!+E*CF8937FC28AECAC73AC6732 +C22C 2CECBF3CAB)AE378A6AF3C2C )237AC5AA2C2C)237AC7627F27ACA3C2C)42BAC7FB32F32F5ACAC762ACF627B5AC 9CEA8A29C2):BCEF8937FC28AECAC73AC6732 +C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CDDC

(13)

479AC !+D*C &5A6)AC ABC AC-27FABCBC AC 327AC H""[H"[!C 73BC )9C HC EA8A295C 75AF3B+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CDC 479AC!+MC*C4FE37FFA6AF3C9CB(B3:6AC 7653789AC#C 2BAC9C6:AC5653789AC 9CEA8A29CAC13CB++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CDIC 479AC!+*C6A7)BACA3CEA327FABCACBABC))7535BC62345623789AB+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CDCC

& *"A 510%C 9B3237FC AC 8923AC E9)ABC 01C EF379\BC #C 2C E9)AC )7FE7)2AC 9C

EA8A29CAFC9A+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CMEC

& *"A 513%C 9B3237FC 9C )EABB9BC AC 3237FC 9FC 327FC 7F27AC A3C E2E9C AC 2C

7B32FEACACQ2667F+C62C)9BC27 AC7B32FEACACQ2667F2C2FBCEACE2BC=52CAB3C 2BC9377B5A2CE2CEA2CEAB)FC#C2C6A7A9AC2589237FCAF3ACABCA95C327FBC 7F27AB+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CMDC

& *"A 515%C &FC 4293C 9B3237FC ABC 7B37 937FBC 7F327E2BBAC AFC A9C A3C C 7F3A7

E2BBACAFC9ACB2FBCAAE39ACABC5E22ABCACAC-27FABCBCBC9CE2E9CAC 2C 7B32FEAC AC Q2667F+C &FC 2BC 9B3237FC AC 7B37 937FBC 7F32C A3C 7F3A7 E2BBAC 28AEC 9FC 5E22AC 52C #C "C B73C !"C 73BC #C 73AC A3C #C 29E4AC ABC AC-27FABCB+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CMMC

& *"A 517%C 9B3237FC ABC )A62FEABC 9C B(B3:6AC AC AEFF27BB2FEAC )2C AC

EA8A29CAFCFE37FCACF6 ACABC5E22ABCABCAC-27FABCBCBCAC2C)42BAC AC AEFF27BB2FEA+C 2C J27237FC AC 2C 5E72 7735C AFC FE37FC AC F6 AC ABC 5E22AB+C  C J27237FC AC &&0C AFC FE37FC AC F6 AC AC 5E22A+C EC J27237FCAC27ACB9BC2CE9 AC01C,$+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CMC

& *"A 518%C 9B3237FC ABC )A62FEABC 9C B(B3:6AC AC AEFF27BB2FEAC )2C AC

EA8A29CCAFC3A6ABCAC)5E7B7FB2CABC3295C4,0CA3C400C2CDA97CAC5E7B7F+C C J27237FCAC2C)5E7B7FC625762ACAC2CAEFF27BB2FEACAFCFE37FCACF6 AC ABC5E22AB+CECJ27237FCABC3295CAC29BBABC2EEA)3237FBC4,0CAFCFE37FCAC F6 AC ABC 5E22AB+C C J27237FC ABC 3295C AC 295C A<A3BC AFC FE37FC AC F6 ACABC5E22AB+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CMIC

& *"A512%C9B3237FCABC827237FBCABC)A62FEABC9CB(B3:6AC 7653789AC)2C

ABCE22E357B3789ABCAC2C3A539AC9FACE9)AC01C9CEA8A29CAFCFE37FCAC2C 589AFEAC EAF32AC A3C AC 2C 2FAC )2BB2F3AC 9C 73AC AC 32 C 9377B5C )9C AC E2ACABC2337 93BCAC2C3A539A+267F7EACAC5E72 77352C C6AC3295CAA9C 52AC&&02CEC627ACB9BC2CE9 AC01C$,+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++C"C

& *"A51;%C9B3237FCABC827237FBCABC)A62FEABC9CB(B3:6AC 7653789AC)2C

ABCE22E357B3789ABCAC2C3A539AC9FACE9)AC01C9CEA8A29CAFCFE37FCAC2C 589AFEAC EAF32AC A3C AC 2C 2FAC )2BB2F3AC 9C 73AC AC 32 C 9377B5C )9C AC E2ACABC2337 93BCAC2C3A539A+2DA97CAC5E7B7F2C C2C)5E7B7FC625762AC AC8577E237F2CEC295CAC29BBABC2EEA)3237FC4,02CC295CAC295CA<A3BC400+ C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CC 479AC E+I*C 9B3237FC ABC )A62FEABC 9C B(B3:6AC )9C 75AF3ABC 5B937FBC 272ABC A3C 75AF3ABC 5B937FBC 2F927AB+C 2J27237FC AC 7F7EAC AC

(14)

,$+C 6ABC 762ABC F627B5ABC BF3C E5ABC AFC AC-27FABCBC AFC 9377B2F3C AC 73AC6732 CC28AE 0.5 0 = f σ CA3 1 12 0 = f +C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++C!C 479AC E+C*C 9B3237FC AC )A62FEABC 9C B(B3:6AC )9C 75AF3ABC 5B937FBC 272ABC A3C 75AF3ABC 5B937FBC 2F927AB+C 2C J27237FC AC 2C )5E7B7FC AC AEFF27BB2FEABCECJ27237FC9C3295CAC29BBABC2EEA)3237FBC4,02CCJ27237FCC 9C 3295C AC 295C A<A3BC 400+C 6ABC 762ABC F627B5ABC BF3C E5ABC AFC AC-27FABCBCAFC9377B2F3CAC73AC6732 CC28AE 0.5 0 = f σ CA3 1 12 0 = f +C+++CEC 479ACE+"*C@C29E4AC2CE9 ACAC827237FCAC2C)5E7B7FCAFCFE37FCABCBA97BCAC 5E7B7FCAC2C7B32FEACACQ2667FCAF3ACAC-27FABCB+C@C73AC79B3237FC AC2CE9 AC9C01+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CDC 479AC E+*C 9B3237FC AC 2C E9 AC 9C 1C 897C 5829AC ABC )A62FEABC 9C B(B3:6ACAFC3A6ABCABC3295C7AF377E237F+C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CDC 479AC E+!*C 9 AC ABC 827237FBC ABC E6)227BFBC 7F327E2BBABC A3C 7F3A7E2BBABC 2B5ABCB9CAC)226:3AC pC897CE22E357BAC2C56537AC9CEA8A29C2FBC2CE9)AC )7FE7)2A+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CMC 479ACE+E*C2C9 ACAC827237FCAC2C)5E7B7FCAFCFE37FCABCBA97BCAC5E7B7FC )9C AC ABE7)3A9C 5653789AC p+C  C 9 AC 9C 01C 29BB7C )9C AC ABE7)3A9C5653789A+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CC 479ACE+H*C9B3237FCABCE9 ABC1CA2378ABC#C9377B237FCABCAC-27FABCBC A3C ABC ABE7)3A9BC 5653789ABC AC13CBC )9C 7AF377E237FC 9FAC )ABFFAC )2CBFCEA8A29+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CI"C 479AC E+D*C 4FE37FFA6AF3C 9C B(B3:6AC 7653789AC 897C EFB7B3AC #C 2C 9B7FC ABC E22E357B3789ABC 3A5392ABC 9C EA8A29C A-27FABC A3C ABC E22E357B3789ABC 5653789ABC9CEA8A29CA13B+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CIC 479AC H+*C 9)ABC 01C AC EA8A295C 9735ABC )2C 9FC 973C AC 3()AC 29BB7AFC AC 6(AFFABC F9AB2C AFC 27B2F3C 827AC 5E2373()AC E66AC B973C*C σ =02C

0.000046

=

σ 2C σ =0.0001422C σ =0.00142C σ =0.00452C σ =0.014+C 6ABC %D.0C

EAB)F2F3BC#CEABC5E23BC3()ABCBF3CF35BC29CABB9BCACE42E9FACABC762ABC 01+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CIMC 479AC H+!*C 9)ABC 01C AC EA8A295C 9735ABC )2C 9FC 973C 6937)7E237C AC 3()AC B)AEKAC AFC 27B2F3C 827AC 2C 8272FEAC E66AC B973C*C C v=02Cv=0.00452Cv=0.0142C

05 . 0 = v 2Cv=0.152Cv=0.8+C6ABC%D.0CEAB)F2F3BC#CEABC8272FEABCBF3CF35BC 29CABB9BCACE42E9FACABC762ABC01+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CIMC 479AC H+E*C 9B3237FC ABC E9)ABC 01C )7FE7)2ABC E6)ABB5ABC )2C AC EA9C D%QEC)9C75AF3BC3295CACE6)ABB7F+C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++CIC 479ACH+H*C9B3237FCAFC!CABC62B89ABC 7F27ABC 3AF9BC2):BC2CBA6AF3237FC9C 896AC01CE55 2AC)9C75AF3BCF78A295CABC 973BCAC3()AC29BB7AF+C++++++CIIC

(15)

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(16)

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(24)

7FF5AB2CE66ACABCA6)A7F3ABC7732ABC9C2E897BABCE66AC2CB7F239AC9C2C62E4A+C %9C EABC E22E357B3789AB2C F9BC 7B37F9FBC ABC E22E357B3789ABC )4(B789ABC E66AC 77B2CA6)A7F3AC7732A2C2C56537ACAC2C627F2C,.2C2C6ACACA7A+C6ABC E22E357B3789ABC E6)3A6AF32ABC 3AABC 89AC 2C B7F239A2C 2C 8752C 2C 2]FC F3C FC 9377BAC9FCE287AC7F23A92C2C562E4A2CA3E+CC

AC 62F7:AC 5F52A2C ABC E22E357B3789ABC 7653789AB2C E6)3A6AF32ABC 9C )4(B789ABC78AF3CB237B27AC9FCAFBA6 ACABC))7535BCOP2CO!PC*C

− 69F78AB2735C*C 7F789AC 89AC EA33AC E22E357B3789AC AB3C )5BAF3AC E4A=C 393ABC ABC )ABFFABCUC

− 69F7E735C*C B7F77AC 89AC A95C )ABFFABC FAC 78AF3C )2BC 287C A52E3A6AF3C 2C 6>6ACE22E357B3789ACUC − 62CB32 7735C*C7F789AC89ACEA33ACE22E357B3789ACAB3ACB32 AC29CE9BC9C3A6)BCA3C 89A89ABCB7AF3CABCE7EFB32FEABCAC2E897B737FCUC − 62C6AB92 7735C*CB7F77AC89ACEA33ACE22E357B3789AC73C>3AC#C2C7BC2E7A6AF3C A3C892F3732378A6AF3C6AB92 ACUC − 62C)A62FEAC*C7F789AC89AC7AF377E237FC73C>3AC)5E7BACA3C2)7ACUC

− 62EEA)32 7735C*CB7F77AC89ACEA33ACE22E357B3789AC73C>3AC 7AFC2EEA)35AC)2CABC 9377B23A9BC9CB(B3:6ACUC

− 62C FF7A)9E37 7735C 9C 2C E7EF8AF37FC EFEAFAC 2C 2E7735C 9C FFC #C 2B77AC2CE22E357B3789AC 7653789A+C

CAB3C7F35ABB2F3CACF3AC89ACABC62735BC 7653789ABC2E39AABCFAC)BB:AF3C )2BC E56AF3C 393ABC EABC ))7535B+C %2C EFB589AF32C 29E9FAC 62735C 7653789AC FAB3CFEC)2273ACA3CBFCE475CAB3CFE37FCAC2))7E237FC87B5A+CC

1.2.1

C "A:! !!A)"!A.A'  4"A

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(25)

ABC E22E357B3789ABC )4(B789ABC 9C E6)3A6AF32ABC 9FC 7F7879C B9BC 6AC 9FC 6:AC 7653789AC 2))A5C 29BB7C AC&939CBC 9C B7F239A+C 6AC BAEFC 69AC EFB7B3AC #C AFA7B3AC ABC 6>6ABC E22E357B3789ABC A3C ABC E6)2AC 295C 6:ABC 7653789ABC AFA7B35BC 2FBC 2C 2BAC AC FF5AB+C D7C ABC FF5ABC AFA7B35ABC EAB)FAF3C #C 9FC 6:AC 7653789AC AC 2C 2BAC AC FF5AB2C 7F7879C AB3C FEC EFB755CE66ACAEFF9CO!P2COEP+

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0131010 -"A)99! *A

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(26)

AEFF27BB2FEAC AC 2C )2A+C 6AC B7F2C 27FB7C  3AF9C AB3C 32735C AFC 9377B2F3C ABC 6534ABC AC AEFF27BB2FEAC ABC 6ABC 27FC AC FAC A3AF7C 89AC ABC )226:3ABC )A37FAF3B+C 6ABC 2337 93BC A3AF9BC BF3C AFB973AC E5BC 27FC AC EFB397AC 9FC 6:AC 7653789AC897CBA2CB3EK5C2FBC9FAC 2BACACFF5AB+CAC6:AC73C9F7C9FAC A)5BAF3237FC F627B5A2C A7E2EAC A3C 3:BC 7BE767F2F3AC AC 2C E22E357B3789AC 7653789ACE2)395A+C

0131013 -AA!! !A

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1.2.2

9#" !A)"!A.A'  4"A

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0131310 8"@A)"AA.AA# :  !A C

(27)

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θ

*C9FAC 7B32FEAC 7F57A9AC #C

θ

C 76)789AC 89AC ABC A95C 6:ABC 7653789ABC E6)25BC 2))237AFFAF3C#C2C6>6AC)ABFFA+C%2CEF3A2C9FAC7B32FEACB9)57A9AC#C

θ

C76)789AC 89AC ABC A95C 6:ABC 7653789ABC AFC 89AB37FC )87AFFAF3C AC A95C )ABFFABC 75AF3ABC OP+C %9C 5829AC ABC )A62FEABC 9FC B(B3:6AC 7653789AC AFC 6AC 2934AF377E237FY8577E237F2C F9BC A8FBC 532 7C 2C 7B37 937FC ABC BEABC AC 7BB7672735C ABC 9377B23A9BC 57376ABC E7AF3BC )2C ABC E6)227BFBC 7F327E2BBAB+C AC )9B2C C 2C 7B37 937FC ABC BEABC AC 7BB7672735C ABC 76)B3A9BC )2C ABC E6)227BFBC 7F3A7E2BBABC 73C >3AC 532 7A+C 62C 79AC+!C A)5BAF3AC 2C 7B37 937FC ABC BEABC ABC 9377B23A9BC 57376ABC A3C ABC 76)B3A9BC 9FC B(B3:6AC 2934AF377E237FC 7653789AC F3C 2C E6)227BFC AB3C 2B5AC B9C AC E2E9C 9FAC 7B32FEACAC7BB7672735+C.9BC7B37F9FBC27FB7CA95C3()ABCAA9BCAC8577E237FC EAB)F2F3C295C629827BABC5E7B7FBC*C

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(28)

6ABC3295CAA9BC4,0CA3C400CBF3C5)AF2F3BC9CBA97CAC5E7B7FC

θ

C755C2FBCAC 69ACAC5E7B7F+C CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC

( )

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N FA FARθ = θ CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC+C A3C CCCCCCCCCC

( )

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M FR FRRθ = θ CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC+!C C .429A(/6A)A24E24475EA89EAE729EA89A84EE44324A89EA47E92EA9A89EA44E392EA449EA85AE0E19A 4724 9A95A789A!2443475/AFE23475A8AE94A89A84E475A9A89EA37A.A9A./A 293ABC6AB9ABCAC)A62FEABC)A98AF3C>3AC53A67F5ABC#C)237CABCA95C 3295C4,0CA3C4002C3ABC89ACAA9C6(AFFACF35ACQ&0CAC$3A&73A2272A39ABCA3C2C )5E7B7FCAC230CB+C CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC

( )

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2 θ θ θ FAR FRR HTER = + CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC+EC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCPrécision

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(

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CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC+HC

(29)

C

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6ABCA95C3295CAA9BC4,0CA3C400CBF3C5)AF2F3B+C&FCAA32CAFC27B2F3C827AC ACBA97CAC5E7B7FC

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θ

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(30)

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θ

2CACa&0CAB3CFF5C)2C*C CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCFRR

( )

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CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC+DC $FAC293AC653789ACAB3C9377B5AC)9C2C6AB9ACABC)A62FEABC9FCB(B3:6AC 7653789ABC EAB3C 27AC B9BC 2C E9 AC 01C AC293A ;5892A 7A 62!9ABC F35AC ,$+C &AC )A6A3C AC 892F377AC AC A5C AC B5)2237FC AF3AC 2C 7B37 937FC ABC BEABC AC 7BB7672735CABC9377B23A9BC57376ABCA3C76)B3A9B+C,93A6AF3C732C27ACB9BC2C E9 AC01CA)5BAF3AC2C) 2 7735C89ACACBEACF35C lég

p

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(

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N M S S I AUC M p N q imp q lég p × =

11

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(31)

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− 6AC3A6)BC6(AFCAFRA6AF3CUC − 6AC3A6)BC6(AFCAC8577E237FCUC

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(32)

0131315 3!#AA!: !A

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1.2.3

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(33)

0131510 59 !A * A

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