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HAL Id: jpa-00213961

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Submitted on 1 Jan 1971

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EVALUATION OF THE ENERGY PER UNIT SURFACE IN A CROSS-TIE WALL

N. Minnaja

To cite this version:

N. Minnaja. EVALUATION OF THE ENERGY PER UNIT SURFACE IN A CROSS-TIE WALL.

Journal de Physique Colloques, 1971, 32 (C1), pp.C1-406-C1-407. �10.1051/jphyscol:19711142�. �jpa- 00213961�

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JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C 1, supplement au n° 2-3, Tome 32, Fevrier-Mars 1971, page C 1 - 406

EVALUATION OF THE ENERGY PER UNIT SURFACE IN A CROSS-TIE WALL

N. MINNAJA

Direzione Progetti e Studi, General Electric Information Systems Italia, I 20010 Pregnana Milanese, Italy (*)

Résumé. — Un modèle auto-consistant de paroi à « cross-tie » est présenté : toutes contributions à l'énergie totale sont traitées au même degré d'approximation. Les résultats montrent l'existence des parois de Néel à épaisseur plus faible, parce que les lignes de Bloch sont introduites comme une partie du modèle, et leur énergie détermine la distance entre les parois latérales.

Abstract. — A self-consistent model of a cross-tie wall is presented, in which all contributions to the total energy are treated at the same degree of approximation. The results establish consistently the occurrence of Neel walls at lower thickness, because the Bloch lines are directly introduced as a part of the model itself, and their energy affects the spacing between the side walls.

I. Introduction. — The correct method to eva- luate the behaviour of the magnetization through domain walls in thin films consists in proper appli- cation of Brown's equations [1] and in checking the stability of the solutions ; the best approaches to the solution are the numerical calculations of LaBonte [2]

and Hubert [3], [4], in two-dimensional models (magnetization independent of a coordinate parallel to the direction of the wall). Cross-tie walls, however, need a three-dimensional treatment: the proposed models are either very sophisticated (Aharoni [5]), or crude and not realistic (Prutton [6]), or internally not consistent (Middelhoek [7]). This last method, however, already criticized by Holz [8], will be put here in a self-consistent form.

II. The model. — The present model is two- dimensional : the thickness of the film will be taken into account through the demagnetization factor of Neel [9]. The wall is considered as a periodic struc- ture consisting of a main wall and many side walls, at distance 2 p from each other, all of Neel type ; Bloch lines divide the main wall at each cross-point with a side wall and at the middle points between successive cross-points. Both thicknesses a of the main wall and a' of the side walls are assumed to be much smaller than p. Out of the walls the magne- tization vector is assumed to be tangent to circles

FIG. 1. — Behaviour of the magnetization in the present model.

(*) Present address : Sezione Progetti e Studi, Honeywell Information Systems Italia, 120010 Pregnana, Milanese, Italy

with centre on the straight line parallel to the two adjacent side walls and equally far from them, at distance b from the main wall ; out of the walls the stray field is assumed to vanish. This model is sketched in figure 1. The differences from Middelhoek [7] are more free parameters, avoiding ad hoc assumptions, and infinite side walls, avoiding free poles. This infinite length is supported by electron micrographs (Fig. 2).

FIG. 2. — Electron micrograph of a cross-tie wall. The contrast is of Foncault-type and is due to the component of the magne-

tization normal to the main wall.

III. Evaluation of the energy. — Out of the walls the exchange energy is easily evaluated, following Aharoni [5]. Per unit area we have

2 A Cp/h 1

crx — — arctg w dw . (1) P Jo w

For the main wall segment between two side walls we use a proper coordinate system and write

nx . nx

vx = cos — vy = sin — (2)

2 arctg (b/y)

to keep M continuous. Because of assumption p > a, we write

Article published online by EDP Sciences and available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jphyscol:19711142

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EVALUATION OF THE ENERGY PER UNIT SURFACE IN A CROSS-TIE WALL C 1 - 407

ing a proper p. After this, we can perform numerically

= q P P o dy l::, [(g 7) + the minimization on p/b. If we consider the same material as Middelhoek 171 (A = 10d6 erg/cm, K = 10+3 erg/cm3, M = 800 e.m.u.), we obtain

+ (2 sin 5)

'1

dx the results of figure 3 : the cross-tie wall is stable

~ l b 1

= 9 b J arctg2 - W dw (4) 8 a f ' o

and in a similar way for the side walls

m G

1 2 .

.;=" 1 arctg2 - dw .

W ( 5 ) ?

a' hip b

The evaluation of the anisotropy energy per unit area is straightforward for axial anisotropy. The 4

quantities ok, o; and o: can be written as integrals of elementary functions depending on plb and respec- tively proportional to p, a and a'.

In the main wall we assume

-

of NCel [9]

I

- NCei

cross-the

-

Bioch

C

ad a' d

and ---

a + d a f + d '

I

between 100 and 1 300 A. At the same time the mean distance 2 p between successive walls is deduced, and it is plotted in figure 4.

0 100 d(nm) 200

to keep H continuous ; o& and oil are also integrals

of elementary functions depending on and pro- FIG. 3. - Surface energy density of different walls as a function of thickness.

portional respectively to the demagnetization factors

At the same degree of approximation we can write for the contribution of the Bloch lines

15

where o is the energy per unit area of a Bloch wall following Middelhoek [7]. Taking into account also the uncomplete rotation at the sides, we take the averaged formula

IV. Minimization of the energy. - To perform the minimization of the energy, we can proceed in two steps. For each value of ratio plb a minimum

of ok + oh + oL can be determined by choosing O' 50 100 150 d ( n m ) 200

a proper a, a minimum of + by choosing FIG. 4. -Distance between side walls as a function of thick- a proper a' and a minimum of ox + o, + oB by choos- ness.

References

[l] BROWN (W. F., Jr), Micromagnetics, 1963. [6] PRUTTON (M.), Phil. Mug., 1960, 5 , 625.

[2] LABONTE (A. E.), J. Appl. Phys., 1969, 40, 2450. [7] MIDDELHOEK (S.), J. Appl. Phys., 1963, 34, 1054.

[3] HUBERT (A.), Phys. Stat. Sol., 1969, 32, 519. [8] HOLZ (A.) and HUBERT (A.), Z. angew. Phys., 1969, [4] HUBERT (A.), Phys. Stat. Sol., 1970, 38, 699. 26, 145.

[5] AHARONI (A.), J. Appl. Phys., 1966, 37, 3271. [9] NEEL (L.), C. R. Acad. Sci., 1955, 241, 533.

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