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Muon energy reconstruction in ANTARES and its application to the diffuse neutrino flux


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Muon energy reconstruction in ANTARES and its

application to the diffuse neutrino flux

Alain Romeyer, Juan de Dios Zornoza Gomez, Ronald Bruijn

To cite this version:

Alain Romeyer, Juan de Dios Zornoza Gomez, Ronald Bruijn. Muon energy reconstruction in ANTARES and its application to the diffuse neutrino flux. 2003. �hal-00000567�


ccsd-00000567 (version 1) : 29 Aug 2003

Muon Energy Reconstruction in ANTARES and its

Appli-cation to the Diffuse Neutrino Flux

Alain Romeyer1

, Ronald Bruijn2

and Juan-de-Dios Zornoza3

On behalf of the ANTARES collaboration

(1) DSM/DAPNIA/SPP, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France (2) NIKHEF, Kruislaan 409, 1009 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

(3) IFIC (CSIC-Univ. de Valencia), apdo. 22085, E-46071 Valencia, Spain


The European collaboration ANTARES aims to operate a large neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, 2400 m deep, 40 km from Toulon (France). Muon neutrinos are detected through the muon produced in charged current in-teractions in the medium surrounding the detector. The Cherenkov light emitted by the muon is registered by a 3D photomultiplier array. Muon energy can be inferred using 3 different methods based on the knowledge of the features of muon energy losses. They result in an energy resolution of a factor ∼ 2 above 1 TeV. The ANTARES sensitivity to diffuse neutrino flux models is obtained from an energy cut, rejecting most of the atmospheric neutrino background which has a softer spectrum. Fake upgoing events from downgoing atmospheric muons are rejected using dedicated variables. After 1 year of data taking, the ANTARES sensitivity is E2

dΦν/dEν .8 ⋅ 10−8 GeV cm−2 s−1 sr−1 for a 10 string detector

and an E−2 diffuse flux spectrum.

1. Introduction

The ANTARES detector will consist of 12 identical strings, each string sup-porting 30 storeys each of which are equipped with 3 downward looking optical modules [1]. Each optical module is a pressure resistant glass sphere containing a 10 inch photomultiplier (PMT). The arrival times and amplitudes of the muon Cherenkov light hits on PMT allows the reconstruction of the track with a very good precision (angular resolution of 0.2o at high energy) and a reasonable

es-timation of the energy. In section 2, the three energy estimators developed in ANTARES are described. In section 3, the ANTARES sensitivity to cosmic dif-fuse neutrino fluxes are obtained after rejection of the atmospheric neutrino and muon background.



2. Muon energy estimators

The 3 energy estimators are based on the increase of emitted light due to muon catastrophic energy losses above 1 TeV. The first method is purely empir-ical. The second is based on muon energy loss. The third uses a neural network approach. Results are shown for a 10 string detector.

2.1. Minimum ionising muon comparison method

This empirical method compares the recorded amplitude on each PMT, Ai, to the theoretical amplitude that a minimum ionising muon (MIM) would

have given, AM IM

i [3]. A hit classification is determined depending on the value

of the Ai


i ratio for each hit i: if 0.1 <

Ai AM IM i < 100 (10 < Ai AM IM i < 1000) the

hit is classsified as a “low (high) energy”. A variable called xs, where s stands for

“low” or “high”, is defined for both classes: xs= N µ P iAi P iA M IM i −1 ¶ (1) where i runs over all the “low” (“high”) energy hits and N is the total number of hits in the event. The relation between xs and the true Monte Carlo muon

energy, Eµ, is parametrised by a parabola. If log10(xlow) < 3.5 (log10(xlow) > 3.5)

then the xlow(xhigh) value is used. This method gives an energy resolution of a

factor of 3 on the energy (see Fig. 1).

2.2. Energy from an estimation of the muon dE/dx

The method [4] is based on the muon energy estimation from the dE/dx evolution with respect to its energy. A dE/dx estimator, ρ, is constructed using the total hit amplitude in the event, ∆A = P

iAi, the detector response R and

the muon path length, Lµ, in the detector sensitive volume:

ρ = ∆A

R Lµ

. (2)

The sensitive volume is defined as the instrumented volume to which 2.5 λef f. att.

are added, λef f. att.being the effective attenuation length in the water as measured

at the ANTARES site.

The detector response R is defined as :

R = 1 Npm Npm X j=1 α(θ) rj e −rj λeff. att. (3)

where Npm is the number of PMTs in the detector; α(θ) is the PMT angular

efficiency; 1 r e



Fig. 1. Comparison of the energy estimator performances as a function of the true muon energy Eµ. Left plot: evolution of the log10(Ereco

Eµ ) RMS (square: MIM

comparison method, Sec. 2.1; circle: dE/dx method, Sec. 2.2) [4]; right plot: evolution of the sigma of a gaussian fit on the log10(Ereco

Eµ ) distribution (neural

network approach, Sec. 2.3).

r in water. The ratio ∆AR is a direct estimation of the total amount of energy which has been lost by the muon in this volume. The relation between ρ and the true muon energy Eµ is fitted by a third order polynomial. This method is

valid only when muons have a path length & 200 m in the sensitive volume and is relatively insensitive to the detector geometry. The achieved energy resolution is a factor 2 on the muon energy above 10 TeV (see Fig. 1).

2.3. Neural network approach

This method essentially uses as input the amplitude of hit and time differ-ence with respect to a pure minimum ionising muon. Catastrophic muon energy losses lead to greater amplitudes and broader time distributions. The only output variable is the muon estimated energy. Actually, the NN was trained only with events ≥ 1 TeV. Works is in progress for lower energies. First results show that between 100 GeV and 1 TeV the accuracy is around a factor of 3. Above 10 TeV, the performances are comparable to those presented in 2.2 (around a factor 2 on Eµ, see Fig. 1).

3. ANTARES sensitivity to a diffuse high energy cosmic neutrino flux

The ANTARES sensitivity to a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux superimposed on top of the atmospheric neutrino background can be evaluated using the 3 energy estimators. For brevity, only the results of the estimator described in Sec. 2.2 are presented. A typical cosmic differential neutrino spectrum with E−2 energy dependence has first been considered [5]. The atmospheric neutrino



Fig. 2. ANTARES sensitivity compared to diffuse fluxes and experimental limits [5]. The limit is shown upon an E−2 hypothesis.

spectrum (∼ E−3.6) is softer and is rejected using an energy cut, which also

rejects those atmospheric muon background events surviving dedicated muon rejection cuts. These cuts are essentially independent of the assumed spectral shape. The ANTARES sensitivity, with a 10 string detector, is found to be 7.8 ‘ 0.99 ⋅ 10−8 GeV cm−2 s−1 sr−1 after 1 year of data taking (3.9 ‘ 0.7 ⋅ 10−8

GeV cm−2s−1sr−1 after 3 years) with an optimal muon energy threshold at 50

TeV (126 TeV). The uncertainties are determined from various predictions of the atmospheric prompt neutrino flux [2] (see Fig. 2). Using the same “experimental” conditions (10 string detector, 1 year of acquisition), the sensitivity to a model like SDSS91 (M95 loud A) is ∼20 times better (∼67 times worse) than the model flux with an optimal energy threshold at 125 TeV (210 TeV) (see Fig. 2) [4].

4. Conclusion

Three different energy estimators have been developed in the ANTARES collaboration. They reach an energy resolution of a factor between 2 and 3 on Eµ

and allows a limit of ∼ 8 ⋅ 10−8 GeV cm−2 s−1 sr−1 to be set for 1 year’s data

with an E−2 spectrum and a 10 string detector.

1. E. Aslanides et al. 1999, ANTARES proposal astro-ph/9907432 2. C.G.S. Costa 2001, Astropart. Phys. 16(193)

3. A. Oppelt 2001, PhD thesis, Universit´e de la M´editerran´ee 4. A. Romeyer 2003, PhD thesis, Universit´e Paris VII


Fig. 1. Comparison of the energy estimator performances as a function of the true muon energy E µ
Fig. 2. ANTARES sensitivity compared to diffuse fluxes and experimental limits [5].


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