انتقال الزواج و الخصوبة في الجزائر و كندا

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Texte intégral

(1)

ﻤﺠﻟا

ـ

ﺋاﺰﺠﻟا ﺔﯾرﻮﮭ

ـ

ـﯿطاﺮﻘﻤﯾﺪﻟا ﺔﯾﺮ

ـ

ﺸﻟا ﺔ

ـ

ﯿﺒﻌ

ـ

ﺔـ

ﺘﻟا ةرازو

ـ

ﻌﻟا ﻢﯿﻠﻌ

ـ

ﺒﻟاو ﻲﻟﺎ

ـ

ـ

ﻌﻟا ﺚ

ــ

ﻲﻤﻠ

جﺎﺤﻟا ﺪﯿﻘﻌﻟا ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ

ﺮﻀﺨﻟ

ﺔﻨﺗﺎﺑ

1

ﺔـﯿﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻاو ﺔـﯿﻧﺎﺴﻧﻹا مﻮـﻠﻌﻟا ﺔــﯿﻠﻛ

ﻢـﺴﻗ : ﺎﯿﻓاﺮﻐﻤﯾﺪﻟا و عﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻا ﻢﻠﻋ ﻌﺷ ــ ﺔﺒ : ﯾﺪﻟا ﯿﻓاﺮﻐ ـﺎ

طأ ــ ﺔﺣوﺮ ةدﺎﮭﺷ ﻞﯿﻨﻟ ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻣ ﻠﻋ هارﻮـــﺘﻛد ــ مﻮ ﻲﻓ ﺺـﺼﺨﺗ ﻟا ـﯾﺪ ﺎـﯿﻓاﺮﻐ ﺔﺒﻟﺎﻄﻟا داﺪﻋإ : فاﺮﺷإ ﺖﺤﺗ : يﻮﻨﻟا ﺔﻤطﺎﻓ أ . د / ﻦﯾﺪﻟا رﻮﻧ يدواد ﺔﺸﻗﺎﻨﻤﻟا ﺔﻨﺠﻟ ﺔﯿﻌﻣﺎﺠﻟا ﺔﻨﺴﻟا : 2019 -2020 ﺐﻘﻠﻟا و ﻢﺳﻹا ﺔﯿﻤﻠﻌﻟا ﺔﺒﺗﺮﻟا ﺔﯿﻠﺻﻷا ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺠﻟا ﺔﻔﺼﻟا د / فوﺮﻜﻌﻟا ﻲﻠﻋ ذﺎﺘﺳأ ﺮﺿﺎﺤﻣ ) أ ( ﺔﻨﺗﺎﺑ ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ 1 ﺎﺴﯿﺋر أ . د / يدواد ﻦﯾﺪﻟا رﻮﻧ ﻲﻟﺎﻌﻟا ﻢﯿﻠﻌﺘﻟا ذﺎﺘﺳأ ناﺮھو ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ 2 و ﺎﻓﺮﺸﻣ ارﺮﻘﻣ أ . د / ﻒﯾﺮﺷ ةﺰﻤﺣ ﻲﻠﻋ ذﺎﺘﺳأ ﻲﻟﺎﻌﻟا ﻢﯿﻠﻌﺘﻟا ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ نﺎﺴﻤﻠﺗ اﻮﻀﻋ ﺎﺸﻗﺎﻨﻣ د / رﺎﻋﺮﻋ ﺲﻧأ ذﺎﺘﺳأ ﺮﺿﺎﺤﻣ ) أ ( ﺔﻨﺗﺎﺑ ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ 1 اﻮﻀﻋ ﺎﺸﻗﺎﻨﻣ د / يﺪﻟﺎﺧ ﻞﻣﺎﻜﻟا ﺪﺒﻋ ذﺎﺘﺳأ ﺮﺿﺎﺤﻣ ) أ ( ﺔﻨﺗﺎﺑ ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ 1 اﻮﻀﻋ ﺎﺸﻗﺎﻨﻣ د / لﺎﺠﻌﻠﺑ ﺔﯾزﻮﻓ ذﺎﺘﺳأ ة ةﺮﺿﺎﺤﻣ ) أ ( سﺎﺒﻌﻠﺑ يﺪﯿﺳ ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ ةﻮﻀﻋ ﺔﺸﻗﺎﻨﻣ

لﺎﻘﺘﻧا

و جاوﺰــﻟا

اﺪﻨﻛ و ﺮﺋاﺰـﺠﻟا ﻲــﻓ ﺔﺑﻮﺼــﺨﻟا

(2)

ـ

ﺮﻜ

ﱃإ ﺮﻜﺸﻟ مﺪﻘﺗأ

ـ

ﻊﯿﻤ

ﺎﺒﻟا

ﻢﳍﲈـﻋﺄﺑ ﱐودﺎﻓأ ﻦ ا ﲔﺜـﺣ

،

ﻢﳯـ ﺑ ﻦﻣ

ﰲ ﲔ ﺣﺎﺒﻟا

ا

ﺲرﺎﺒﺑ ﺎ ﻓاﺮﻐﳝ ﲏﻃﻮﻟا ﺪﻬﻌﳌ

ﺐﺗﰷ لﲈﻛ

و

ﺔﯿﻫز

يﺪﯾﺪﺑ حﺎﺿو

ﺟﻮﺗ ﲆ

ـ

ﲈﲥﺎﻬ

ﺔ ﺣﺎﺒﻠ رﺪﻗأ و

ﺔﯿﻫز

ﱵﺸﻗﺎ ﻣ ﰲ ﺎﳤﺒﻏر

.

ﺚﺣﺎﺒـﻟا

ﲔﻟﱰﺳﰷ نﻮﺟ

ﺔﻌﻣﺎ ﰲ رﻮﺴ ﻓوﺮ و ،ﺔ ﻜﺮﻣﻷا ﺔﯿﻧﲀﺴﻟا ﺔﻄﺑاﺮﻟا ﺲ ﺋر

ﻮﯾﺎﻫوأ

د

ﻪﲻ

ةﲑ ﻜﻟا ﻪﺗﻻﺎﻐﺸ ا ﰬر ﺖﻗو ﰻ ﰲ ﰐﻻؤﺎﺴ ﲆ ﻪﺘﺑﺎ إ و

.

ﺮﻃأ ﲆ فﴩﳌا

رﻮﺴ ﻓوﱪﻟا ﱵﺣو

يدواد ﻦ ا رﻮﻧ

ناﺮﻫو ﺔﻌﻣﺎ ﻦﻣ

2

ﻪﲘﺎﺼﻧ

ﻪﺗﺎﳱﺟﻮﺗ و ﺔﳰﻘﻟا

.

ةﺰﺰﻌﻟا ﱵﻠ ﻣز و ﱵﻘﯾﺪﺻ

ةذﺎﺘﺳﻷا

ﺶ ﺎ ﺔ ﺴﺣ

اﲑﺜﻛ ﺎﻫﺮﻜﺷأ ﱵﻟا

ﱄ ﺎﻫﲒﻔﲢ ﲆ

ﱃإ ﺎﻬﻓﻮﻗو و ﺔ وﺮﻃﻷا مﺎﲤﻹ

تﺎﻗوﻷا ﰻ ﰲ ﱯﻧﺎ

.

رﻮﺘﻛ ا

ةﺰﻐﺑ لدﺎ

تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﳌا ﻞﯿﺻﻮﺗ ﲆ ﻪﲻ ﻦ ا و

ﻢﻬﺳأر ﲆ و ﺔﯿﳫﻟ ﻂﯿﺸ ﻟا يرادﻹا ﰴﺎﻄﻟا

:

ﺔﯿﳫﻟا ﺪﯿﲻ

أ.

ةﺮﻗﻮﺑ لﲈﻛ د

ﻪﺒﺋ و

د

.

ﻂﯿﻌﺑ ﰌﺎﻓ

ﻢﺴﻘﻟا ﺲ ﺋر و

د

.

رﺎ ﺮﻋ ﺲ أ

رﻮﺘﻛ ا

ﺔﺒﻌﻃ ﺮﲻ

ﻪﻌﯿﺠﺸ و ﻪﺗﺪﻧﺎﺴﻣ ﲆ ﻗرو ﺔﻌﻣﺎ ﻦﻣ

.

ﻌﻟا ﺔﻨﺠﻠ ا ءﺎﻀﻋأ

ﺔﺸﻗﺎﻨﳌا ﺔﻨﳉ و ﺔﯿﻤﻠ

ﻞﻤﻌﻟا اﺬﻬﻟ ﻢﻬﳰ ﻘﺘﻟ ةﺮ ﰷد و ةﺬﺗﺎﺳأ

.

(3)

ﻫإ

ــــــــ

ءاﺪ

ﱃإ و ،ﺔﳝﺮﻜﻟا ة اﻮﻟا ﺔﺻﺎ و ﱵﻠﺋﺎ ﱃإ ﻞﻤﻌﻟا اﺬﻫ يﺪﻫأ

ؤﺮﻘﯾ ﻦﻣ ﰻ

ﻐﺘﺴ و ﻩ

ﰼﺪ ﻔﯾ نأ ﲎﳣ

(4)

ﺺﺨﻠﳌﺍ

ﺀﺍﺮﺟﺇ ﻮﻫ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﻦﻣ ﻑﺪﳍﺍ ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺮﺷﺆﻣ ﲔﺑ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣﺇ ﺔﻧﺭﺎﻘﻣ ﺔﻴ ﻭ ﲔﺘﻟﻭﺪﻟ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﰲ ﻥﺎﻔﻠﺘﲣ ﻂﳕ ﺕﺎﻴﻄﻌﳌﺍ ﺏﺭﺎﻘﺗ ﻭ ﻪﺑﺎﺸﺘﻟ ﺎﻨﺘﻈﺣﻼﻣ ﺪﻌﺒﻓ ،ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ﺓﺎﻴﳊﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﻭ ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺓﺮﻫﺎﻈﺑ ﻖﻠﻌﺘﻳ ﺎﻤﻴﻓ ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ﺔﻳﺪﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻳﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺔﻴ ﻞﻴﻠﲢ ﻞﺟﺃ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺓﺮﻫﺎﻇ ﺎﳍ ﺎﻨﻔﺿﺃ ، ﳌ ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ،ﲔﺗﺮﻫﺎﻈﻟﺍ ﲔﺗﺎﻫ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﺍ ﺔﻈﺣﻼﳌ ﻭ ﻖﻤﻌﻣ ﻴﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻓﺮﻌ ـ ﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺮ ـ ﻃ ﻲ ـ ﻋ ﺕﺃﺮ ـ ﻰﻠ ﻟﺍ ـ ﺟﺍﻭﺰ ﺔﻴ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻭ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﺓﺮﺘﻓ . ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﺔﻠﺣﺮﻣ ﺪﻬﺸﺗ ﱵﻟﺍ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺮﺷﺆﻣ ﻊﻴﲨ ،ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺽﺎﻔﳔﺎﺑ ﺾﻔﳔﺍ ﱐﺎﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﻮﻤﻨﻟﺎﻓ ،ﱐﺎﺜﻟﺍ ﺔﻴ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺗ ﺮﻬﻈﺗ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍﻭ ﺎﺴﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺎﻌﺋﺎﺷ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﻱﺪﻴﻠﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻲﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻠﻟ ﺔﻘﻴﻤﻋ ﻖﺑ . ﱃﺇ ﺖﻟﻮﲢ ﺓﲑﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﺈﻓ ﺎﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ ﻮﻴﺳﻮﺳ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻋ ﺓﺪﻌﻟ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻊﺟﺮﻳ ﻭ ﺔﻳﻭﻮﻧ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻋ ) ﻒـﻳﺭﺎﺼﻣ ،ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺔﻣﺯﺃ،ﺔﻟﺎﻄﺒﻟﺍ ﺔﺸﻴﻌﳌﺍ ﺀﻼﻏ ﻭ ﺓﺎﻴـﳊﺍ ... ( ﺔﻴﻓﺎﻘﺜﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺮﻀﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﺎﻀﻳﺃ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ، . ﻯﻮﺘـﺴﳌﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺧﺍ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﻥﻷ ﻂﻘﻓ ﲔﻠﻔﻃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺮﺳﻷﺍ ﻊﻴﲨ ﻞﻤﺘﺸﺗ ﻻ ﲏـﻃﻮﻟﺍ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ ﻒﻗﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﻭ ﻢﻈﻨﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺎﻓﻼﺘ ﻹﺎﺑ ،ﺏﺎﳒ ﻥﺇ ﻊﻤﺘﺍ ﰲ ﺔﻠﻀﻔﳌﺍ ﺓﺮﺳﻷﺍ ﺓﺭﻮﺻ ﻭ ﺓﺮﻄﻴﺴﻣ ﺓﺮﻜﻓ ﻲﻫ ﻝﺎﻔﻃﻷﺍ ﺏﺎﳒﺇ ﰲ ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ ﺓﺪﻳﺪﺟ ﺔﻠﺣﺮﻣ ﻲﻫ ﻭ ﺓﲑﺧﻷﺍ ﺙﻼﺜﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﻮﻨﺴﻟﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﺎﻋﺎﻔﺗﺭﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺕﺪﻬﺷ ﺪﻗ ﻭ ،ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺔﻳﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺎﻫﺪﻬﺸﺗ . ﻱﺪﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻑﺮﻋ ﻞﺑﺎﻘﳌﺎﺑ ﲑﻐﺗ ﺔﻤﻬﳌﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ﻢﻈﻨﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺓﺪﺣﺍﻭ ﻞﺜﳝ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻥﺃ ﺪﻌﺑ ﺔﻘﻴﻤﻋ ﺕﺍ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ ﺾﻔﺨﻨﺗ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ﻥﺃ ﺚﻴﺣ ،ﻝﻮﲢ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻌﻠﻟ ﻱﺪﻴﻠﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻪﺟﻮﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺎﺸﺘﻧﺍ ﻞﻗﺃ ﺎﻴﻟﺎﺣ ﺢﺒﺻﺃ ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻣ . ﻨﻣ ﺬ ﻲﺿﺎﳌﺍ ﻥﺮﻘﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﺍﺪﺑ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﻭ ﺭﺍﺮﻘﺘﺳﻻﺍ ﱃﺇ ﻝﻮﺧﺩ ﺔﻳﺍﺪﺒﻛ ﱪﺘﻌﻳ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻥﻮﻜﺘﺗ ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﺪﺟﻮﺗ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﻭ ﺓﲑﺒﻛ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺚﻴﺣ ﻝﺎﻔﻃﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺟﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺝ ﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻝﺎﺟﺮﻟﺎﻛ ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻨﺜﺘﺳﺍ ﺬ ﺓﺩﺮﻔﻨﳌﺍ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﻮﻠﻀﻔﻳ ﻦﻳ ، ﻛ ﻭ ﺬ ﺓﺮﳊﺍ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﻚﻟ ﲔﺴﻨﳉﺍ ﲔﺑ ﺝﺍﻭﺰـﻟﺎﺑ ﺹﺎﺨـﺷﻷﺍ ﺭﺍﺮـﻤﺘﺳﺍ ﻢﻏﺭ ﺔﻳﺪﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺕﻼﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺗ ﺕﺃﺮﻃ ﻦﻜﻟ ، ﻝﺎﻔﻃﻷﺍ ﺏﺎﳒﺇ ﻭ ، ﻥﺃ ﻻﺇ ﻫ ﺬ ﻢﳍ ﻭ ﺮﺧﺄﺘﻣ ﻦﺳ ﰲ ﻥﻮﺟﻭﺰﺘﻳ ﻢﺃ ﺎﻤﻛ ﺓﲑﺼﻗ ﺎﺪﻣ ﻥﻮﻜﺗ ﺕﺎﳚﺰﻟﺍ ﻩ ﻲﺿﺎﳌﺍ ﰲ ﻖﺒﺴﻳ ﱂ ﺎﻤﻛ ﻕﻼﻄﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﺍ ﻊﻣ ﻝﺎﻔﻃﻷﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻞﻴﻠﻗ ﺩﺪﻋ .

(5)

ﺔﻴﺣﺎﺘﻔﳌﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻠﻜﻟﺍ : ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ،ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﺔﻴ ،ﺔﺑﻭﺰـﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ،ﺔﻴـﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ، ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﺭﺎﺠﻔﻧﺍ ،ﺔﺑﻮـﺼﳋﺍ . Abstract

The objective of this study is to make a statistical comparison between the indicators of nuptiality and fertility of two countries that differ in the pattern and system of social and economic life, after noting the similarity and convergence of the Algerian and Canadian data, especially with regard to the phenomenon of nuptiality, we add the phenomenon of fertility for in-depth analysis and observation of transition these two phenomena, as well as knowledge of changes in nuptiality and fertility during the transition period. Algeria is one of the countries in the second demographic transition. Population growth is declining with fertility. All indicators of nuptiality and fertility show profound changes in the traditional family model that was common in the past. In general, the large family has become a nuclear family due to several socio-economic factors (unemployment, housing crisis, living expenses, high cost of living ...); there is also the factor of urbanization and cultural changes. At the national level, not all families have only two children because there is a difference in reproductive systems and attitudes. The desire to have children is a dominant idea and the image of the preferred family in Algerian society. Fertility has increased during the past three years and is a new phase in Algerian fertility.

The Canadian marriage has undergone profound changes since it was one of the important social systems that are now less prevalent and the traditional face of the family is shifting, as nuptiality rates are constantly declining. Since the beginning of the last century, marriage was considered as the beginning of entry into stability. The traditional family consisted of husband, wife and children, the family was large and there were exceptions such as men and women who prefer single or single family and free relations between the sexes. Despite the fact that people continue to marry and have children, these marriages are of short duration and they marry at a later age and have fewer children with higher divorciality rates than ever before.

Key words: Demographic transition, Nuptiality, Marital status, Celibacy rates, Fertility, Baby boom.

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ﻔﻟا

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سﺮﮭ

ﻝﻭﺍﺪﳉﺍ ﺱﺮﻬﻓ ... ج ﻝﺎﻜﺷﻷﺍ ﺱﺮﻬﻓ ... ح ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻣ ... ... 1 ﻞﺼﻔﻟﺍ ﻝﻭﻷﺍ : ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻠﻟ ﻲﺠﻬﻨﳌﺍ ﺭﺎﻃﻹﺍ ﺪﻴﻬﲤ ... . 4 I . ﻢﻫﺃ ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺴﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ . ... ... ... ... . ... 5 II . ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻜﺷﻹﺍ ... ... ... 32 III . ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻑﺍﺪﻫﺃ ... ... 37 IV . ﻉﻮﺿﻮﳌﺍ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﺍ ﺏﺎﺒﺳﺃ ... 37 V . ﻢﻴﻫﺎﻔﳌﺍ ﺪﻳﺪﲢ ... ... ... .. .. ... 38 VI . ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﺞﻫﺎﻨﻣ ... . 43 ﺔﺻﻼﺧ ... . 45 ﱐﺎﺜﻟﺍ ﻞﺼﻔﻟﺍ : ﺎﺼﻣ ﺕﺎﻴﻄﻌﳌﺍ ﺭﺩ ﺪﻴﻬﲤ ... ... 46 I . ﺕﺎﻘﻴﻘﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﻳﺭﺎﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺡﻮﺴﳌﺍ ﻭ ... .. 47 1 . ﺔﻳﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺡﻮﺴﳌﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻘﻴﻘﺤﺘﻟﺍ ... ... . .. 47 ﺃ . ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻝﻮﺣ ﲏﻃﻮﻟﺍ ﺢﺴﳌﺍ ENAF 1986 ... 47 ﺏ . ﻞﻔﻄﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻡﻷﺍ ﺔﺤﺻ ﻝﻮﺣ ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺢﺴﳌﺍ EASME 1992 ...51 ﺕ . ﺓﺮﺳﻷﺍ ﺔﺤﺻ ﻝﻮﺣ ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺢﺴﳌﺍ EASF 2002 ... ... .. 57 ﺙ . ﲏﻃﻮﻟﺍ ﺢﺴﳌﺍ ﺕﺍﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺩﺪﻌﺘﻣ 3 MICS 2006 ...62 ﺝ . ﺖﻗﻮﻟﺍ ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ ﻝﻮﺣ ﲏﻃﻮﻟﺍ ﺢﺴﳌﺍ ENET 2012 ... .. 69 ح . ﺕﺍﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺩﺪﻌﺘﻣ ﻱﺩﻮﻘﻨﻌﻟﺍ ﺢﺴﳌﺍ MICS 4 2012 -2013 ... ... . 72 أ

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2 . ﺮﻳﺭﺎﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﺪﻨﻜﻟﺍ ... 78 ﺃ . ﺮﻳﺮﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻝﻮﺣ ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﻥﺎﻜﺳ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ 1997 ... 78 ﺏ . ﺮﻳﺮﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻝﻮﺣ ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﻥﺎﻜﺳ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ 2003 -2004 ... ... 80 ﺕ . ﺮﻳﺮﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻝﻮﺣ ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﻥﺎﻜﺳ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ 2005 -2006 ... .. 81 ﺙ . ﺕﺍﺮﻳﺪﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺮﻏﻮﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﻮﻨﺴﻟﺍ 2014 ... .. 82 ﺝ . ﺕﺍﺮﻳﺪﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺮﻏﻮﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﻮﻨﺴﻟﺍ 2016 ... ... .. 83 II . ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﺔﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ ... 83 1 . ﺔﻳﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ ... 83 ﺃ . ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ 1966 ... .... 83 ﺏ . ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ 1977 ...84 ﺕ . ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ 1987 ... .. 84 ﺙ . ﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪ 1998 ... .. 85 ﺝ . ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ 2008 ... .. . 86 2 . ﺔﻳﺪﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ ... . .. 88 ﺃ . ﱐﺎﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ 1956 ... . ... 88 ﺏ . ﱐﺎﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ 1966 ... 88 ﺕ . ﱐﺎﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ 1971 ... ... 88 ﺙ . ﻱﺩﺍﺪﻌﺗ 1986 ﻭ 1991 ... 89 ﺝ . ﱐﺎﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ 2006 ... . 89 ﺡ . ﱐﺎﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ 2011 ... ... 89 ﺥ . ﱐﺎﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ 2016 ... . 90 III . ﺔﻴﻧﺪﳌﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ... 91 1 . ﺔﻳﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺔﻴﻧﺪﳌﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ... ... 91 ب ب

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2 . ﺔﻳﺪﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻧﺪﳌﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ... 93 ﺔﺻﻼﺧ ... 96 ﺚﻟﺎﺜﻟﺍ ﻞﺼﻔﻟﺍ : ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻄﻄﳐ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺔﻴ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺪﻴﻬﲤ ... 97 I . ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ ﺕﺍﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﺔﻴ ... 98 1 . ﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﻂﺳﻮﺘﻣ ... ... 98 2 . ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﺃ ... 103 3 . ﻡﺎﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﳌﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻠﻟ ... 108 4 . ﺔﻴﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ... ... 110 5 . ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ... 116 II . ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﺍ ﱃﺇ ﺔﻳﺩﺆﳌﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﻧﺭﺎﻘﻣ ﻭ ﲑﺴﻔﺗ ﺔﻴ ... 121 1 . ﺏﺭﺎﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻪﺟﻭﺃ ... ... ... 121 ﺃ . ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ... 121 ﺏ . ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻘﻌﻟﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ... 126 2 . ﻪﺟﻭﺃ ﻑﻼﺘﺧﻻﺍ ... 127 ﺃ . ﺔﻟﺎﻄﺒﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺔﻣﺯﺃ ،ﺮﻀﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ... . 127 ﺏ . ﺔﻳﺪﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺝﺫﻮﳕ ﲑﻐﺗ ﻕﻼﻄﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﺍ ﻭ ... .... 133 ﺔﺻﻼﺧ ... .. 142 ﻊﺑﺍﺮﻟﺍ ﻞﺼﻔﻟﺍ : ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﻮﺘﺴﻣ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺪﻴﻬﲤ ... 143 I . ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺎﺑ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ ﺕﺍﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ ... 144 1 . ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ... 144 ت

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2 . ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﻤﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﳌﺍ ... ... 148 3 . ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﱯﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ... 150 4 . ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﳌﺍ ... 155 5 . ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﺍ ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ ... ... 158 II . ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺪﳏ ... 160 1 . ﺏﺭﺎﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻪﺟﻭﺃ ... 160 ﺃ . ﻞﻤﳊﺍ ﻊﻧﺍﻮﻣ ﱃﺇ ﺀﻮﺠﻠﻟﺍ ... ... .. 160 ﺏ . ﺓﺃﺮﻤﻠﻟ ﻲﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﳌﺍ ... 165 ﺕ . ﺓﺃﺮﻤﻠﻟ ﻱﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﻁﺎﺸﻨﻟﺍ ... 169 ﺙ . ﺮﻀﺤﺘﻟﺍ ... ... 176 2 . ﻑﻼﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﻪﺟﻭﺃ ... ... 181 ﺃ . ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﺍ ... 181 ﺏ . ﻞﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﰊﺎﳒﻹﺍ ﻙﻮﻠﺴﻟﺍ ﻭ ﲏﻳﺪﻟﺍ ... 182 ﺔﺻﻼﺧ ... 185 ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ ... ... 186 ﺔﲤﺎﺧ ... 189 ﻊﺟﺍﺮﳌﺍ ﺔﻤﺋﺎﻗ ... 191 ﻖﺣﻼﳌﺍ ... ... 199 ث ث

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لواﺪﺠﻟا سﺮﮭﻓ

ﻢﻗﺭ ﻝﻭﺪﳉﺍ ﻝﻭﺪﳉﺍ ﻥﺍﻮﻨﻋ ﺔﺤﻔﺼﻟﺍ 1 ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﺃ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1966 -2008 104 2 ﲔﺑ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﻻﻭ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﺃ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1986 -2008 102 3 ﺔﻳﺪﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻃﺎﻘﳌﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﺃ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1986 -2008 108 4 ﻦﻣ ﱪﻛﻷﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ 15 ﻡﺎﻋ ﻝﻼﺧ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﻨﺳ 2012 113 5 ﲔﻐﻟﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﺱﺭﺪﻤﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ 6 -15 ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﻨﺳ ﲔﺑ ﺲﻨﳉﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ 1966 -2006 123 6 ﺴﺣ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺪﻨﻋ ﻂﺳﻮﺘﳌﺍ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ـ ﻘﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﺐ ـ ﺕﺎﻘﻴ 1986 -2006 124 7 ﻴﺑ ﺎﺎﻌﻃﺎﻘﻣ ﻭ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﲔﻘﻠﻄﳌﺍ ﺹﺎﺨﺷﻸﻟ ﺕﺍﻮﻨﺴﻟﺎﺑ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻠﻟ ﺔﻄﺳﻮﺘﳌﺍ ﺓﺪﳌﺍ ـ ﻦ 1981 -2008 141 8 ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﺃ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1962 -2016 145 9 ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﻤﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﳌﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1946 -2016 149 10 ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﱯﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ 1960 -2016 151 11

ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﻞﻤﳊﺍ ﻊﻧﺍﻮﻣ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﺍ ﺕﻻﺎﺣ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ

%

ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻄﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ

1968 -2013 163 12 ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﱯﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺴﻨﻠﻟ ﻲﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﳌﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ـ ﺀﺎ 1970 -2013 167 13 ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﻣ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﲔﺑ ﺔﻣﺎﻗﻹﺍ ﻂﺳﻭ ﻭ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ 1970 -2013 177 ج

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لﺎﻜﺷﻷا سﺮﮭﻓ

ﻞﻜﺸﻟا ﻢﻗر ﻞﻜﺸﻟا ناﻮﻨﻋ ﺔﺤﻔﺼﻟا 1 ﺮﺋﺍﺰﺠﻠﻟ ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳉﺍ ﻊﻗﻮﳌﺍ 39 2 ﺍﺪﻨﻜﻟ ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳉﺍ ﻊﻗﻮﳌﺍ 40 3 ﲔﺑ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1948 -2008 99 4 ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﲔﺑ 1948 -2008 99 5 ﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﻂﺳﻮﺘﳌ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺮﻐﳉﺍ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﻝﺎﺟﺮﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻠﻟ ﺮﺋﺍ ﲔﺑ 1966 -2002 101 6 ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﺃ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1966 -2008 105 7 ﲔﺑ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﻷ ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳉﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺘﻟﺍ 1986 -2015 107 8 ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﳌﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1966 -2008 109 9 ﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﻤﻠﻟ ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳉﺍ ﻊﻳﺯﻮﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻨﺳ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰ 2008 110 10 ﻦﻣ ﱪﻛﻷﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﻊﻳﺯﻮﺗ 15 ﺔﻨﺳ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺲﻨﳉﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ 1966 -2008 111 11 ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﺲﻨﳉﺍ ﻭ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ﺔﻴﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ﲔﺒﻳ ﱐﺎﻜﺳ ﻡﺮﻫ 1981 -2011 115 12 ﻦﻣ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ 15 ﺀﺎﺴﻧ ﻭ ﻝﺎﺟﺭ ﺮﺜﻛﺃ ﻭ ﺔﻨﺳ ﲔﺑ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ 1986 -2008 116 13 ﻦﻣ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ 15 ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﺀﺎﺴﻧ ﻭ ﻝﺎﺟﺭ ﺮﺜﻛﺃ ﻭ ﺔﻨﺳ 1981 -2011 117 14 ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻠﻟ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ﲔﺑ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ 1966 -2008 118 ح

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15 ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻠﻟ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ 1966 -2007 119 16 ﳌ ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳉﺍ ﻊﻳﺯﻮﺘﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﱪﻛﻷﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌ 15 ﺀﺎﺴﻧ ﻭ ﻝﺎﺟﺭ ﺔﻨﺳ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﻨﺴﻟ 2002 120 17 ﺱﺭﺪﻤﺘﻟﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﻣ ﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ـ ﺧ ﻦﻣ ﺮ ـ ﻌﺗ ﻝﻼ ـ ﺕﺍﺩﺍﺪ 1966،1987 و 2008 123 18 ﻦﻣ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﻧ ﻊﻳﺯﻮﺗ 25 ﱃﺇ 45 ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﻲﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﳌﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ﺔﻨﺳ 1990 -2009 125 19 ﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﻦـﻴﺑ ﺔﻣﺎﻗﻹﺍ ﻂﺳﻭ ﺐﺴﺣ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻝﺎﺟﺮﻠﻟ ﺝﺍﻭﺰ 1966 -2006 127 20 ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﻟﺎﻄﺒﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1987 -2018 132 21 ﺕﺩﺍﺪـﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ﺔﻳﺪﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺕﻼﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﻧ ﻊﻳﺯﻮﺗ 1961 -2011 133 22 ﻛ ﰲ ﺓﺩﺮﻔﻨﳌﺍ ﺮﺳﻸﻟ ﺔﻴﻋﺮﺸﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ﺐﺴﻧ ﻊﻳﺯﻮﺗ ﺍﺪﻨ 1961 -2011 135 23 ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﻕﻼﻄﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﺃ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1926 -2008 139 24 ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﻕﻼﻄﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﳌﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ) ﻞﻜﻟ 10.000 ﺺﺨﺷ ( ﲔﺑ 1981 -2008 140 25 ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﺃ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1962 -2016 146 26 ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﻷ ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳉﺍ ﻊﻳﺯﻮﺘﻟﺍ 1977 -2017 146 27 ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﻤﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﳌﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1946 -2016 150 28 ﲔﺑ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﱯﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1960 -2016 152 29 ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺗ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﱯﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ 2008 153 30 ﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻃﺎﻘﳌﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﱯﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺔﻨﺳ ﻝﻼﺧ ﺔﻳﺪﻨﻜﻟ 2008 154 خ

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31 ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﻣ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ﲔﺑ 1970 -2017 156 32 ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﻣ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ﲔﺑ 1970 -2016 157 33 ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﻞﻤﳊﺍ ﻊﻧﺍﻮﻣ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﺍ ﺐﺴﻧ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ % ﲔﺑ 1968 -2013 162 34 ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺴﺣ ﺀﺎـﺴﻨﻠﻟ ﻲﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﳌﺍ ﻭ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺐ ﲔـﺑ 1970 -2002 166 35 ﻞﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻲﻠﻜﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﻣ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺕﺎﻐﻟﺎﺑ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ 15 -54 ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟ ﺔﻳﺩﺮﻔﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ﺔﻨﺳ 1998 170 36 ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺧ ﻝﺪﻌﻣ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﺌﻔﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ـ ﺴﺣ ﻭ ﺔﻳﺮﻤ ـ ﻊﺑﺭﺃ ﺐ ﺌﻓ ـ ﺍ ﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺕﺎ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺗ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﺓﺃﺮﻤﻠﻟ ﻱﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﻁﺎﺸﻨﻟ 1998 172 37 ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﱯﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ISF ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻝﺎﺟﺮﻟﺍ ﻞﺧﺩ ﻂﺳﻮﺘﻣ ، ﻝﺪﻌﻣ ، ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﻞﻐﺷ 1947 -2011 174 38 ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﱯﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺴﺣ ـ ﺳﻭ ﺐ ـ ﻴﺑ ﺔﻣﺎﻗﻹﺍ ﻂ ـ ﻦ 1970 -2013 177 39 ﻟ ﱯﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﺮﻀﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ﻭ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠ 1947 -2011 180 40 ﲔﺑ ﺮﺋﺍﺰـﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﺃ ،ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻋﺃ ،ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﻣ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ 1965 -2015 181 د

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1

ﺔﻣﺪـﻘـﻣ

ﻮﻴﺳﻮﺳ ، ﺔﻴﺳﺎﻴﺳ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺗ ﺓﲑﺧﻷﺍ ﺔﻨﺳ ﲔﺴﻤﳋﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﺕﺪﻬﺷ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻣﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﲔﺑ ﻦﻣ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﻋ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺮﻐﳝﺩ ﻭ ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ ﺖﺴﻣ ﺔﻘﻴﻤ ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﻴ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻭ ﺎﻬﻓﺮﻌﺗ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻟﺎﳊﺍ ﺔﺒﻌﺼﻟﺍ ﻑﻭﺮﻈﻟﺍ ﻭ ، ﺓﺮﺷﺎﺒﻣ ﺎﳍﻼﻘﺘﺳﺍ ﻢﻏﺭ ﺕﺎﻨﻴﺘﺴﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﻮﻨﺳ ﰲ ﺎﻬﻓﻭﺮﻇ ﻊﻣ ﺎﻣﺎﲤ ﺾﻗﺎﻨﺘﺗ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ، ﻝﻼﻘﺘﺳﻻﺍ ﺪﻌﺑ ﻑﺮﻋ ﺮﺴﻔﻳﻭ ﻦﺴﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺎﻇﻮﺤﻠﻣ ﺍﲑﻜﺒﺗ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻚﻟﺫ ﺑ ﺩﺪﻋ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﺎ ﻗﻭ ﺕﺎﳚﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﻼﺒﻟﺍ ﺭﺍﺮﻘﺘﺳﺍ ﻊﺠﺷ ﺪ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻚﻟﺫ ،  ﻊﻣ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻨﻴﻌﺒﺴﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﻮﻨﺳ ﺔﻳﺎ ﺚﻴﺣ ،ﺲﻜﻌﻟﺍ ﺮﻬﻈﻳ ﺃﺪﺑ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ﺖﻀﻔﳔﺍ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺗ ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻧ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺳﺎﻴﺳ ﻦﺴﻟ ﻞﺻﺍﻮﺘﳌﺍ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﻻﺎﺑ ﺔﻠﺣﺮﳌﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﺖﻤﺴﺗﺍﻭ ،ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﻉﺭﺎﺴﺘﻣ ﺽﺎﻔﳔﺍ ﻪﻌﺒﺗ ، . ﻥﺇ ،ﻞﻤﳊﺍ ﻊﻨﻣ ﻞﺋﺎﺳﻭ ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺮﺧﺄﺗ ﻯﻮﺳ ﺎﻧﻮﻜﻳ ﱂ ﺔﻠﻴﺳﻭ ﻻ ﳔ ـ ﳋﺍ ﺽﺎﻔ ﺼ ـ ﺔﺑﻮ ﻤﻋ ـ ﺎﻴﻠ ﺕﺩﺃ ﱵﻟﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﺲﻔﻧ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ،ﻥﺎﻴﺣﻷﺍ ﻦﻣ ﲑﺜﻛ ﰲﻭ ﱃﺇ ﺪﻗ ،ﺮﺧﺄﺘﳌﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻝﻮﺣ ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻊﻴﲨ ﺕﺮﻬﻇﺃ ﺪﻗﻭ ،ﻝﺎﻔﻃﻷﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻞﻗﺃ ﺩﺪﻋ ﺏﺎﳒﺇ ﰲ ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ ﱃﺇ ﺕﺩﺃ ﺍ ﻊﻨﻣ ﻞﺋﺎﺳﻭ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﺍ ﻦﺴﲢ ﻊﻣ ﻡﺪﻘﺗ ﺪﻗ ﻞﻤﳊ ﰲ ﺔﻛﺭﺎﺸﳌﺍﻭ ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﺎﻤﻴﺳﻻ ،ﺓﺃﺮﳌﺍ ﺔﻧﺎﻜﻣ ﻁﺎﺸﻨﻟﺍ ﻻﺍ ﻱﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗ ، ﺐﺒﺴﺑ ﻝﺎﻔﻃﻷﺍ ﻒﻴﻟﺎﻜﺗ ﻊﻓﺭ ﺔﻴﺣﺎﻧ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﻮﲢ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﺛﺆﻳ ﺔﻬﺟ ﻦﻣ ﻊﻳﺮﺴﺘﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺳﺭﺪﳌﺍ ﻦﻜﲤ ﺔﻴﺣﺎﻧ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻀﻳﺃﻭ ،ﻢﳍﺎﻔﻃﺃ ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟ ﻞﻫﻷﺍ ﻪﺑ ﻡﻮﻘﻳ ﻥﺃ ﺐﳚ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻤﺜﺘﺳﻻﺍ ﺓﺪﻳﺪﺟ ﻢﻴﻘﻟ ﺎﻫﺮﺸﻧﻭ ﺎﻬﻘﻠﲞ ﰲﺎﻘﺜﻟﺍ ﲑﻴﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻴﻠﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻢﻈﻨﻟﺍ ﻊﻣ ﻊﻃﺎﻘﺗ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻭ ﺔ، ﺟ ﻦﻣ ـ ﺔﻬ ﺧﺃ ـ ﻖﻴﻘﲢ ﺕﺎﻧﺎﻜﻣﺇ ﻑﺎﺸﺘﻛﺍﻭ ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺎﻓ ﻯﺮ ،ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﲑﻏ ﻯﺮﺧﺃ ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻄﺑ ﺕﺍﺬﻟﺍ ﻳ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﺩﻮﻘ ﺕﺎﺑﺎﺸﻟﺍ ﱃﺇ ﲑﺧﺄﺗ ﻩ ﺔﻔﻴﻇﻭ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻝﻮﺼﺤﻠﻟ ﺎﻴﻧﺎﺛﻭ ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺪﻳﺰﻤﻠﻟ ﻻﻭﺃ ، . ﲔﻌﺑﺭﻷﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺎﻬﺘﻓﺮﻋ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺮﻏﻮﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﻮﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺍﲑﺒﻛ ﺍﺭﻭﺩ ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺔﻣﺯﺃ ﺖﺒﻌﻟ ﺪﻘﻟ ﺎﳌﺍ ﺔﻨﺳ ﺍ ﻦﺳ ﺮﺧﺄﺘﻟ ﺔﻴﺴﻴﺋﺮﻟﺍ ﺏﺎﺒﺳﻷﺍ ﲔﺑ ﻦﻣ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﺪﻗﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺿ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟ ، ﻥﻮﺟﻭﺰﺘﳌﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺪﻘﻓ ﺣ ـ ﺎﺜﻳﺪ ﻳﻭ ،ﺔﻘﻴﺿ ﻦﻛﺎﺴﻣ ﰲ ﻥﻮﻨﻜﺴﻳ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍﻭ ﺕﺍﻮﺧﻷﺍﻭ ﺓﻮﺧﻹﺍﻭ ﻞﻫﻷﺍ ﻊﻣ ﻥﻮﺸﻴﻌ ﻥﻭﺭﺎﺘﳜ ﺎﺒﻟﺎﻏ

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2 ﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﲑﺧﺄﺗ ﻢﻴﻈﻨﺗ ﻞﺴﻨﻟﺍ . ﺬﻨﻣ ﺎﳎﺎﻧﺮﺑ ﺪﻠﺒﻟﺍ ﻊﺿﻭ ﺕﺎﻴﻨﻴﻌﺴﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﺎ ﻦﻛﺎﺴﻣ ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻟ ﺍﺪﺟ ﺎﺣﻮﻤﻃ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﺍ ، ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ ﻊﺿﻭ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﻞﻤﻋ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻝﻮﺼﳊﺍ ﻞﺒﺳ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺖﻤﻋﺩ ﺖﻗﻮﻟﺍ ﺲﻔﻧ ﰲ ﺀﺍﺮﺟﻹﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﻦﻜﻣ ﺪﻗﻭ ،ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ﺽﻭﺮﻗ ﺢﺘﻓ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﻥﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﺑﺎﺸﻠﻟ ﺕﺎﺴﺳﺆﻣ ﺀﺎﺸﻧﻹ ﺓﺪﻋﺎﺴﻣ ﻲﻠﻣﺎﺣ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ،ﺏﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﺚﻠﺛ ﺖﻠﴰ ﱵﻟﺍﻭ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﳍﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﻄﺒﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﲑﺒﻛ ﺀﺰﺟ ﺹﺎﺼﺘﻣﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺸﻟﺍ ـ ﺕﺍﺩﺎﻬ . ﻘﻳﺮﻃ ﰲ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻋ ﺔﻟﻭﺩ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺲﻴﻟ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻞﺜﻣ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻏ ﺔﻟﻭﺩ ﻊﻣ ﺎﻬﺘﻧﺭﺎﻘﻣ ﻭ ﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ ﱃﺇ ﺎﻬ ﻼﻬﺳ ﱪﺘﻌﺗ ﺓﲑﺧﻷﺍ ﻩﺬﻬﻓ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﲔﺑ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻐﻟﺍ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻣﺪﻘﺘﳌﺍ ﺖﻓﺮﻋ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﳌﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺏﺮﳊﺍ ﺬﻨﻣ ﺛﺃ ﱵﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻣﺎﻫ ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ ﻮﻴﺳﻮﺳ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺗ ،ﺔﻴﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺓﺎﻴﳊﺍ ﺮﻫﺎﻈﻣ ﻞﻛ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺕﺮ ﺖﺴﻜﻌﻧﺍ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﻒﻠﺘﳐ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺮﻐ ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺝﺫﻮﳕ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺕﺮﺛﺃ ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ﻭ ، ﺔﻴ ،ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺃ ﺚﻴﺣ ﺖﻀﻔﳔﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻤﻛ ﺓﲑﺧﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﺸﻌﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻭ ،ﺍﺭﺩﺎﻧ ﺢﺒﺻﺃ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺎﺣ ﺭﺎﺸﺘﻧﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺝﺭﺎﺧ ﺓﺮﺷﺎﻌﳌﺍ ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﺍ ﺕﺩﺍﺩﺯﺍ . ﻝﻼﺧ ﺕﻻﻮﲢ ﺔﻳﺪﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺕﺃﺮﻃ ﺪﻘﻟ ﻳﺪﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺢﺒﺻﺃ ﺚﻴﺣ ، ﺓﲑﺧﻷﺍ ﺔﻨﺳ ﲔﻌﺑﺭﻷﺍ ﱄﺎﳊﺍ ﺖﻗﻮﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻝﺎﻔﻃﻷﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺩﺪﻋ ﻞﻗﺃ ﻥﻮﺒﺠﻨﻳ ﻥﻮ . ﳋﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﺔﻴﺿﺎﳌﺍ ﺔﻨﺳ ﲔﺴﻤ ﻭ ﺕﺍﻮﻨﺳ ﲔﺑ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺗ 1961 ﱃﺇ 2011 ﻐﺗ ﺖﺛﺪﺣ ، ـ ﺘﻗﺍ ﺕﺍﲑ ـ ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼ ﰲ ﺕﺮﺛﺃ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﺍﻭ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﰲ ﺕﻼﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻣﺎﻨﻳﺩ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ، ﺕﺪﻬﺷ ﺍ ﺔﻳﺍﺪﺑ ﺕﺎﻴﻨﻴﺘﺴﻟ ﺓﺮﺘﻓ ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﺓﺮﻔﻃ ) 1946 ﱃﺇ 1965 ( ﻥﺎﻛ ﺚﻴﺣ ، ﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﺴ ﺟﻭﺰﺘﻳ ﻥﻮ ﻢﻫ ﻭ ﺭﺎﻐﺻ ﰲ ﻟﺍ ـ ﺮﺳﺃ ﻢﻬﻳﺪﻟ ﻥﺎﻛﻭ ﻦﺴ ﺓﲑﺒﻛ ﻊﻣ ﻭ ، ﺔﻳﺎ ﺏﺮﻗ ﺕﺎﻨﻴﺘﺴﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﻮﻨﺳ ﺕﺃﺮﻃ ﻴﻌﻣ ﺙﺍﺪﺣﺃ ﺔﻨ ﻞﺜﻣ ، ﺸﺘﻧﺍ ـ ﺭﺎ ﻊﻨﻣ ﺏﻮﺒﺣ ﳊﺍ ـ ﻞﻤ ﻭ ﻱﻮﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ ﺪﻌﺑ ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺓﺃﺮﳌﺍ ﺔﻛﺭﺎﺸﻣ ﺓﺩﺎﻳﺯ ﻚﻟﺬﻛﻭ ، ﺎﻬﻣﺎﻤﻀﻧﺍ ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻯﻮﻘﻟﺍ ﱃﺇ ﻞﻛ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻞﻴﺟﺄﺗ ﰲ ﻢﻫﺎﺳ ﺏﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﻟ ﻦﻳﻮﻜﺘ ﺓﺮﺳﺃ ، ﺚﻴﺣ ﺃ ﺻ ـ ﺢﺒ ﺠﺣ ﺳﻷﺍ ﻢ ـ ﺓﺮ ﻐﺻ ـ ،ﺍﲑ ﻭ ﺮﻬﻇ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﻉﻮﻨﺗ ﰲ ﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻨﺒ ﺔﻳﺮﺳﻷﺍ . ﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﲔﺑ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣﺇ ﺔﻧﺭﺎﻘﻣ ﺀﺍﺮﺟﺇ ﻝﻭﺎﺤﻨﺳ ﺍﺬﻫ ﺎﻨﺜﲝ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ـ ﺣ ﺍﺪ ـ ﺘﻧﺍ ﻝﻮ ـ ﻟﺎﻘ ﺔﻴ ﻟﺍ ـ ﺟﺍﻭﺰ ﺔﻴ ﳌﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﲑﺴﻔﺗ ﻭ ﲔﺗﺮﻫﺎﻈﻟﺍ ﲔﺗﺎﻫ ﻞﻴﻠﲢ ﻚﻟﺬﺑ ﲔﻟﻭﺎﳏ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻭ ـ ﱃﺇ ﺔﻳﺩﺆ

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3 ﻧﻻﺍ ـ ﺏﺭﺎﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻪﺟﻭﺃ ﺯﺍﺮﺑﺇ ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ﻭ ،ﻝﺎﻘﺘ ﻝﻮﺼﻓ ﻊﺑﺭﺃ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﲔﺑ ﻑﻼﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﻭ ﱄﺎﺘﻟﺎﻛ : ﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﻞﺼﻔﻟﺍ : ﻠﻟ ﻲﺠﻬﻨﳌﺍ ﺭﺎﻃﻹﺍ ﺎﻨﻤﻗ ﺚﻴﺣ ﻉﻮﺿﻮﻤﻠﻟ ﺪﻴﻬﲤ ﻮﻫ ﻭ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪ ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻢﻫﺃ ﺯﺍﺮﺑﺈﺑ ﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻑﺍﺪﻫﺃ ، ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻜﺷﻹﺍ ، ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺴﻟﺍ ،ﺔﺳﺍ ،ﻉﻮﺿﻮﳌﺍ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﺍ ﺏﺎﺒﺳﺃ ﺞﻫﺎﻨﻣ ﺍﲑﺧﺃ ﻭ ،ﻢﻴﻫﺎﻔﳌﺍ ﺪﻳﺪﲢ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ . ﱐﺎﺜﻟﺍ ﻞﺼﻔﻟﺍ : ﺧ ﺚﻴﺣ ﺎﻨﺼﺼ ﻩ ﻣ ﻒﻠﺘﺨﳌ ﺕﺎﻴﻄﻌﳌﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼ ﺚﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﰲ ﺎﻫﺎﻨﻣﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ ﺔﻴﻧﺪﳌﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ،ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﺔﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ ،ﺮﻳﺭﺎﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﺣﻮﺴﳌﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻘﻴﻘﺤﺘﻟﺎﻛ ﺔﻟﻭﺩ ﻞﻜﺑ . ﺚﻟﺎﺜﻟﺍ ﻞﺼﻔﻟﺍ : ﻡﻮﻘﻨﺳ ﻪﻴﻓ ﺔﻧﺭﺎﻘﻣﻭ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﺑ ﻟ ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻄﻄﳐ ﺭﻮﻄﺘ ﺔﻴ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﻞﻴﻠﲢ ﻭ ﺍﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﻢﻫﺃ ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ ﺕ ﺔﻴ ﻟﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻ ﺔﻳﺩﺆﳌﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﺯﺍﺮﺑﺇ ﻭ ﺔﻴ ﻫ ـ ﻈﻟﺍ ﻩﺬ ـ ﺟﻭﺃ ﻭ ﺓﺮﻫﺎ ـ ﻪ ﻘﺘﻟﺍ ـ ﺎﻬﻨﻴﺑ ﻑﻼﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﻭ ﺏﺭﺎ . ﻊﺑﺍﺮﻟﺍ ﻞﺼﻔﻟﺍ : ﺯﺍﺮﺑﺇ ﻭ ﺍﺪﻨﻛ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﻮﺘﺴﻣ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟ ﻩﺎﻨﺼﺼﺧ ﺎﻬﻨﻴﺑ ﻑﻼﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﻭ ﺏﺭﺎﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻪﺟﻭﺃ ﻭ ﺔﻟﻭﺩ ﻞﻛ ﰲ ﺎﺍﺩﺪﳏ ﻢﻫﺃ .

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ﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﻞﺼﻔﻟﺍ

:

ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻠﻟ ﻲﺠﻬﻨﳌﺍ ﺭﺎﻃﻹﺍ

ﺪﻴﻬﲤ

I

.

ﻢﻫﺃ

ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺴﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ

II

.

ﻹﺍ

ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻜﺷ

III

.

ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻑﺍﺪﻫﺃ

IV

.

ﻉﻮﺿﻮﳌﺍ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﺍ ﺏﺎﺒﺳﺃ

V

.

ﻢﻴﻫﺎﻔﳌﺍ ﺪﻳﺪﲢ

VI

.

ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﺞﻫﺎﻨﻣ

ﺔﺻﻼﺧ

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4 ﺪﻴﻬﲤ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﺚﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺠﻬﻨﻣ ﺎﻴﻓﺍﺮﻐﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻲﻫ ﻦﻣ ﺓﲑﺒﻛ ﺔﺟﺭﺩ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﳘﻷﺍ ﺔﺟﺎﺣ ﻮﻫ ﻚﻟﺫ ﰲ ﺐﺒﺴﻟﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻋﻮﺿﻮﳌﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﻔﺤﺼﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺎﻘﳌﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻩﲑﻐﻛ ﺲﻴﻟ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﺚﺤﺒﻟﺎﻓ ،ﻢﻴﻈﻨﺘﻟﺍﻭ ﺔﻗﺪﻠﻟ ﻲﻤﻠﻋ ﺚﲝ ﻱﺃ ﺃ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺸﻧﻹﺍ ﺪﺟ ﺮﻣﻷﺎﻓ ،ﺔﻴﺼﻨﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﺒﺧﻷﺍ ﻭ ﻢﻬﻣ ﻭ ﺗ ﲑﺜﻜﻟﺍ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﻱﻮﻄﻨ ﻣ ـ ﻦ ﻨﻟﺍ ـ ﺒﺗﺮﳌﺍ ﺞﺋﺎﺘ ـ ﺔﻄ ﲝ ـ ﺓﺎﻴ ﺕﺎﺟﺎﻴﺘﺣﺍ ﻭ ﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻟ ﻥﻮﻴﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﺀﺍﱪﳋﺍﻭ ﺀﺎﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﻉﺮﺷ ﺍﺬﻟ ،ﻢﻬﺴﻔﻧﺃ ﺑ ﺚﺤﺒﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﺠﻬﻨﻣ ﺩﺎﳚﺈ ﺎﺭﺩ ﻰﻠﻋ ﲑﺴﻳ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﻧ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻨﻫ ﻲﻐﺒﻨﻳ ﻦﻜﻟﻭ ،ﻥﻮﺜﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﲑﺸ ﻥﺃ ﱃﺇ ﺍ ﺔﻴﺠﻬﻨﳌ ﻥﺃ ﺐﳚ ﺗ ﻊﻣ ﻰﺷﺎﻤﺘ ﺧ ﺚﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﺔﻄ ، ﺰﻴﻤﺘﻳ ﻥﺃ ﺐﳚ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﺚﺤﺒﻟﺎﻓ ﺚﻳﺪﺤﺘﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻗﺪﻟﺍ ، ، ﻭ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﲑﺴﻔﺗ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻨﻟﺍ ، ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑ ﺚﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﻞﻤﻌﻟ ﺐﻴﺗﺮﺗ ﻦﻋ ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ ﻲﻫ ﺔﻴﺠﻬﻨﳌﺍ ﺺﺼﺨﺘﻟﺍ ﻖﻓﻭ . ﺚﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﻉﻭﺮﺷ ﻞﺒﻗ ﻥﺃ ﺪﺑ ﻻ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﺚﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺠﻬﻨﻣ ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻛ ﰲ ﻘﻳ ـ ﻘﺑ ﻡﻮ ـ ﻠﺘﳐ ﺓﺀﺍﺮ ـ ﻒ ﲝﻷﺍ ـ ﺮﺼﻨﻌﻛ ﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﻞﺼﻔﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺎﻬﻔﻇﻮﻳ ﻥﺃ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺴﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻲﻫ ﻭ ﻊﺟﺍﺮﳌﺍ ﻭ ﺙﺎ ﻡﻮﻘﻳ ﰒ ،ﻲﺳﺎﺳﺃ ﺪﻳﺪﺤﺘﺑ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻣ ﻭ ،ﺔﺤﻴﺤﺻ ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻄﺑ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﺚﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﻉﻮﺿﻮﻣ ﺔﻠﺣﺮﻣ ﰐﺄﺗ ﺎﻫﺪﻌﺑ ﺎﻴﺿﺮﻓ ﺔﻏﺎﻴﺻ ﻚﻟﺬﻟ ﺝﺎﺘﳛ ﻪﺜﲝ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺍﺫﺇ ﺚﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﺕ ﺔﻄﺒﺗﺮﻣ ﺕﺎﻴﺿﺮﻔﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﳌﺍ ﻥﻮﻜﺗ ﻥﺃ ﺐﳚ ﻭ ، ﻝﺎﺠﲟ ﺎﻀﻳﺃ ،ﻚﻟﺫ ﻦﻋ ﺝﺮﳜ ﻻ ﻥﺃ ﻭ ﻪﺼﺼﲣ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺞﻫﺎﻨﳌﺍ ﻭ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﺚﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﻑﺍﺪﻫﺃ ﺪﻳﺪﲢ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﻣﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ .

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5 I . ﻢﻫﺃ ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺴﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ 1 . ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺎﺑ ﺔﺻﺎﳋﺍ ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﺃ . ﰲ ﻱﺪﻴﻠﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﺎ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ) 1876 -1998 ( ﺚﺣﺎﺒﻠﻟ ﺐﺗﺎﻛ ﻝﺎﻤﻛ

La fin du mariage traditionnel en Algérie? 1876-1998

ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻄﻌﳌﺍ ﺔﻄﺳﺍﻮﺑ ﻲﺋﺎﺼﺣﺇ ﻞﻴﻠﲢ ﻲﻫ : ﺎﻗﻼﻄﻧﺍ ﺔﺒﻗﺎﻌﺘﳌﺍ ﻝﺎﻴﺟﻷﺍ ﺀﺎﻘﺑ ﺕﻻﺎﻤﺘﺣﺍ ،ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﺩﺪﻋ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻬﻋﻮﺿﻮﻣ " ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ " ﺪﻌﺑﻭ ﺭﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﻻﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺛﺃ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﺠﻠﻟ ﻞﻳﻮﻃ ﺦﻳﺭﺎﺗ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻨﻌﻠﻄﻳ ﻞﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ، ﻝﻮﺣ ﺓﺪﻳﺪﺟ ﺕﻻﺅﺎﺴﺗ ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ﺢﺘﻔﺗ ﻭ ،ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺔﻛﺮﺣ ﺮﻫﺍﻮﻇ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻛﺮﺣ ﺓﺮﻈﻨﺑ ﺭﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﻻﺍ ﻲﻠﻜﺷ ﻒﺻﻭ ﻲﻬﻓ،ﻞﻣﺄﺘﻟﺍ ) ﻲﺟﻮﻟﻮﻓﺭﻮﻣ ( ﻦﻜﳝ ﻯﺮﺧﺃ ﺕﻼﻴﻠﲢ ﻭ ﺓﲑﺜﻛ ﺔﻳﲑﺴﻔﺗ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﻣ ﻭ ﺔﻟﻮﻬﺴﺑ ﺎﻬﺟﺎﺘﻨﺘﺳﺍ . ﻩﺬﻫ ﺰﻛﺮﺗ ﲑﻐﺘﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺮﻐﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ " ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ " ﻒﻠﺘﳐ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺀﻮﻀﻟﺍ ﻂﻠﺴﻳ ﺐﺗﺎﻛ ﻝﺎﻤﻜﻓ ﻟﺍ ﺦﻳﺭﺎﺘﻟﺍ ﲑﻐﺗ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻓﺎﻘﺜﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ، ﺔﻴﺳﺎﻴﺴﻟﺍ ،ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ،ﺮﻫﺍﻮﻈﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻴﺟﻷﺍ ﻒﻠﺘﺨﳌ ﻲﻠﺳﺎﻨﺘ ﺔﺒﻗﺎﻌﺘﳌﺍ . ﱵﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻮﻄﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﺭﺎﻬﻇﺈﺑ ﺔﻘﻴﻘﳊﺍ ﰲ ﺢﻤﺴﻳ ﺔﻈﺣﻼﳌﺍ ﻞﻘﺣ ﻥﺇ ﻕﺎﻤﻋﺃ ﰲ ﺮﺛﺆﺗ ﻊﻤﺘﺍ ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ . ﺓﺪﻘﻌﳌﺍ ﺕﺎﺒﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺭﻭﺩ ﺐﻌﻠﺗ ﺎﻷ ﺕﺍﺩﺎﻌﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻄﺒﺗﺮﳌﺍ ﻭ ﺍﺪﺟ ﺓﺯﺭﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﲔﺑ ﻦﻣ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺎﺑ ﻖﻠﻌﺘﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻞﻜﻟ ﻲﺋﺎﺼﺣﻹﺍ ﺮﻳﺮﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ،ﺓﺮﺳﻷﺎﺑ ﻥﺎﻴﺣﻷﺍ ﺾﻌﺑ ﰲ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ ﻑﺮﻌﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻭﺃ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟ ﺏ " ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻕﻮﺳ " ﻥﻮﻴﻧﻮﺴﻜﺳ ﻮﻠﳒﻷﺍ ﻪﻣﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ ﺎﻣ ﺎﻋﻮﻧ ﻑﺎﺟ ﺢﻠﻄﺼﻣ ﻮﻫﻭ . ﺔﺌﻣ ﺬﻨﻣ ﻩﺪﳒ ﺚﻴﺣ ، ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻝﺎﺜﻣ ،ﺕﺎﺒﺛﻹﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﻻﺇ ﻢﻋﺪﻳ ﻻ ﺐﺗﺎﻛ ﻝﺎﻤﻛ ﻞﻴﻠﲢ ﻥﺇ ﺳ ـ ﺯﺎﳚﺈﺑ ﻒﺻﻮﺗ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺟﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ﰲ ﻭ ﺔﻨ : ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻕﺮﻔﻟﺍ ﺓﻮﻗ،ﻍﻮﻠﺒﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﰲ ﺕﺎﻴﺘﻔﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ، ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﺸﺘﻧﺍ، ﺕﺎﺟﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺪﻌﺗ ،ﲔﺴﻨﳉﺍ ﲔﺑ ) ﱄﺍﻮﺣ 99 ℅ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻥﻭﺪﻴﻌﻳ ﺩﺍﺮﻓﻷﺍ ﻦﻣ .( ﲔﺑ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺾﻔﺨﻨﻣ ﻕﺮﻔﺑ ﺰﻴﻤﺘﻳ ﰊﻭﺭﻭﺃ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻮﳓ ﻱﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺘﻠﻟ ﺔﻌﺑﺎﺗ ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﻲﻫ ﻊﻗﺍﻮﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺭﺎﺸﺘﻧﺍ ﻞﻗﺃ ﻭ ﺮﺧﺄﺘﻣ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻤﻛ ،ﲔﺟﻭﺰﻟﺍ ) ﻦﻣ 7 ﱃﺇ 15 ℅ ﺔﻴﺋﺎ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻋ ﻞﺜﲤ ( ﻕﻼﻄﻟﺍ ، ﺭﺮﻜﺘﳌﺍ ) ﺎﺴﻧﺮﻓ ﰲ ﺔﺛﻼﺛ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺪﺣﺍﻭﻭ ، ﺔﻴﻜﻳﺮﻣﻷﺍ ﺓﺪﺤﺘﳌﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﻻﻮﻟﺍ ﰲ ﲔﻨﺛﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺪﺣﺍﻭ ( ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ﻭ

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6 ،ﺕﺎﺟﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺪﻌﺗ ﻡﺍﺪﻌﻧﺍ ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﻖﻓﲑﺳ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺝﺫﻮﳕ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﺎﻓ ) ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺧ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻴﻓﻮﺑ ﺍﺭﻭﺮﻣ ﻔﻴﻌﺿ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺧ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻴﻓﻭ ﱃﺇ ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻋ ﺔ (Kateb, 2001) . ﻩﺬﻫ ﰲ ﺚﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﻪﺒﺸﻳ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻟﺍ ﰊﻭﺭﻭﻷﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺎﺑ ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰ ﻧ ﻦﻜﻟ ﻲﻜﻳﺮﻣﻷﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺃ ﺪﻘﺘﻌ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﺪﻌﻣ ،ﻊﻔﺗﺮﻣ ﻕﻼﻄﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻤﻛ ﺔﻀﻔﺨﻨﻣ ﻲﻫ ﺔﻴﺑﻭﺭﻭﻷﺍ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺰﻴﻤﺘﺗ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﻭ ﻘﺑ ـ ،ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ ﻦﻋ ﺍﺪﺟ ﺭﻮﻄﺘﻣ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺎﻓ ، ﺎﻨﻌﻤﺘﳎ ﻦﻋ ﺍﺪﺟ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﳐ ﺕﺎﻛﻮﻠﺳ ﻭ ﻢﻴ ﻉﺮﺷ ﺪﻗ ﻭ ﺔﻤﻠﺴﻣ ﺔﻟﻭﺩ ﻲﻫ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﻑﻼﲞ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﰲ ﻉﻮﻨﳑ ﺕﺎﺟﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺪﻌﺗ ﻥﺃ ﺚﻴﺣ ﺳﺃ ﻪﻟ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺝﺫﻮﳕ ﲑﻐﺗ ﻥﺇ ، ﻚﻟﺬﺑ ﻡﻼﺳﻹﺍ ﺎﻧﺩﺎﻘﺘﻋﺍ ﰲ ﻭ ﺔﺻﺎﳋﺍ ﻪﻓﻭﺮﻇ ﻭ ﻪﺑﺎﺒ ﻪﻨﻜﳝ ﻻ ﺓﺭﻮﺻ ﻪﺘﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻰﻄﻋﺃ ﺚﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻻﺇ ، ﻲﻜﻳﺮﻣﺃ ﻭﺃ ﰊﻭﺭﻭﺃ ﺝﺫﻮﳕ ﱃﺇ ﻡﺎﻳﻷﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻡﻮﻳ ﰲ ﻝﻮﺤﺘﻳ ﻥﺃ ﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﻒﻠﺘﳐ ﺱﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻠﻟ ﻞﻳﻮﻄﻟﺍ ﺦﻳﺭﺎﺘﻟﺍ ﺯﺮﺑﺃ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﻦﻋ ﺔﻴﻨﻏ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣﺇ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺮﻐﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﻞ ﺎ ﺮﺛﺄﺗ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﳌﺍ ﻒﻠﺘﳐ ﻭ ﻚﻟﺬﺑ .

. ﰊﺮﻌﻟﺍ ﺏﺮﻐﳌﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ : ؟ﻂﻴﺳﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﺝﺫﻮﳕ ﺭﻮﻬﻇ ﻡﺃ ﰊﺮﻐﻟﺍ ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ ﻮﳓ ﻩﺎﲡﺍ

Évolutions du système matrimonial au Maghreb: convergence vers le modèle occidental ou construction d'un modèle intermédiaire ?

ﻝﻭﺩ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺕﺃﺮﻃ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﲑﺴﻔﺗ ﻢﺘﻳ ﺎﳍﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﻠﻴﻠﲢ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﻦﻋ ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ ﻲﻫ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻨﺑ ﻥﻭﺮﻗ ﺬﻨﻣ ﺰﻴﻤﺘﺗ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ،ﺔﻴﻘﻳﺮﻓﻹﺍ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺪﻳﺪﻌﻟﺍ ﺭﺍﺮﻏ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻲﻬﻓ ،ﰊﺮﻌﻟﺍ ﺏﺮﻐﳌﺍ ﺮﻜﺒﳌﺍ . ﺍ ﻩﺬﳍ ﻊﺋﺎﺸﻟﺍ ﻂﻤﻨﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻍﻮﻠﺒﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻥﺇ ﺏﺭﺎﻗﻷﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻞﻀﻔﺗ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘ ﺔﺟﺭﺪﻟﺎﺑ ﻝﺎﳋﺍ ﻭﺃ ﻢﻌﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺑﺃ ﲔﺑ ﱃﻭﻷﺍ . ﻦﻳﺮﺸﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﺮﻘﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﺍﺪﺑ ﰲ ﻥﻮﻳﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻝﺎﺜﳌﺍ ﻞﻴﺒﺳ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻭ ﺙﺎﻧﻹﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺭﻮﻛﺬﻟﺍ ﺀﺍﻮﺳ ﺍﺪﺟ ﺭﺎﻐﺻ ﻢﻫ ﻭ ﻥﻮﺟﻭﺰﺘﻳ ، ﻦﻳﺮﺸﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﺮﻘﻠﻟ ﱃﻭﻷﺍ ﻉﺎﺑﺭﺃ ﺙﻼﺜﻟﺍ ﺬﻨﻣ ﻃﺇ ﰲ ﻰﻘﺒﻳ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻞﻛ ﻭ ﺔﻤﻬﻣ ﺕﺎﺒﻠﻘﺗ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﻑﺮﻋ ﺮﻜﺒﳌﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺎﺑ ﺰﻴﻤﺘﻳ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻨﻟﺍ ﺭﺎ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻠﻟ . ﻑﺮﻋ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﰊﺮﻌﻟﺍ ﺏﺮﻐﳌﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺎﻓ ،ﺔﻘﻴﻤﻋ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺗ ﻰﻔﺘﺧﺍ ﻍﻮﻠﺒﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﺀﺎﻨﺛﺃ ﺮﻜﺒﳌﺍ ﻭ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻠﻟ ﺮﺧﺄﺘﳌﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻪﻠﳏ ﻞﺣ .

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7 ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﺔﻳﺮﺣ ﻞﺒﻘﺘﻳ ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺍ ﻦﻣ ﲑﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﺀﺰﳉﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻪﻠﻗﺮﻌﺗ ﲑﺧﻷﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ،ﻚﻳﺮﺸﻠﻟ ﺍ ﺔﻳﺎﺻﻭ ﻋﻮﻨﳑ ﺢﺒﺻﺃ ﺕﺎﺟﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺩﺪﻌﺗ ﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺛﺃ ﱄﻮﻟ ﻲﺿﺎﻘﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺮﻣﺄﺑ ﻢﺘﻳ ﻭﺃ ﺲﻧﻮﺗ ﰲ ﺎ ، ﻕﻼﻄﻟﺍ ﺾﻗﺎﻨﺗ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ ﺖﻗﻮﻟﺍ ﺲﻔﻧ ﰲ ،ﻝﺎﺼﻔﻧﻼﻟ ﺪﻴﺣﻮﻟﺍ ﻂﻤﻨﻟﺍ ﻮﻫ ﻲﺋﺎﻀﻘﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﺍﺮﻘﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻥﺃ ﺚﻴﺣ ، ﺓﺭﺩﺎﻧ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻬﻨﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺖﺑﺎﺛ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣ ﰲ ﻲﻘﺑ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﰲ . ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﰲ ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ﻭ ﺕﺍﺭﻮﻄﺘﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﻐﳌﺍ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﻯﺪﻟ ﻊﻔﺗﺮﺗ ﺎ ﺮﲤ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺍ ﻩﺬﳍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﰲ ﲑﻐﺗ ﻦﻋ ﱪﻌﺗ ﺪﻗ ﻭ ،ﺕﺍﺮﺻﺎﻌﳌﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﺑﺭ ﻍﻮﻠﺒﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﰲ ﺮﻜﺒﳌﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻠﻟ ﻞﻳﺪﺑ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﺔﻠﺣﺮﲟ ، ﺎﲟﺭ ﻭﺃ ﺮﺧﺄﺘﻣ ﻦﺳ ﰲ ﻦﺟﻭﺰﺘﻳ ﻦﺤﺒﺻﺃ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟ ﰊﺮﻐﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻨﻟﺍ ﻮﳓ ﻻﺎﻘﺘﻧﺍ ﻪﺟﺍﻮﻧ ﻦﳓ ) ،ﻱﺩﺎﺣﻷﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ،ﺮﺧﺄﺘﳌﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺮﺣ ﻚﻳﺮﺸﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﺍ ﺔﻳ ، ﺩﺪﻌﺗ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻁﺎﳕﺃ ( ﻦﻣ ﻖﻃﺎﻨﳌﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﻪﺑ ﺰﻴﻤﺘﺘﺳ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﺯﱪﻴﺳ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻪﺒﺗﺮﺗ ﱂﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺎﻌﻠﻟ ﺎﻣﺍﺮﺘﺣﺍ ، ﻱﺩﺮﻔﻟﺍ ﻰﻐﺘﺒﳌﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻨﻳﺪﻟﺍ . ﺍﺬﻫ ﲑﺴﻔﺗ ﻞﺟﺃ ﻦﻣ ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ، ﻦﻬﻤﻴﻠﻌﺗ ﺔﻠﺻﺍﻮﻣ ﱃﺇ ﻊﺟﺮﻳ ﺕﺎﻴﺑﺭﺎﻐﳌﺍ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻦﺳ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﺍ ﻥﺇ ﺎﺒﺘﻋﻻﺍ ﲔﻋ ﰲ ﺬﺧﺆﻳ ﺭﻮﻄﺘﻟﺍ ﻨﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻌﺒﺘﻳ ﱵﻟﺍ ﲔﻧﺍﻮﻘﻟﺍ ﺭ ﺼﺘﻗﺍ ﻮﻴﺳﻮﺴﻟﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻡﺎﻈ ﰲ ﻖﳊﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻳﺩﺎـ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺐﻟﺎﻃ ﻝﻮﺒﻗ ﻭﺃ ﺾﻓﺭ ) ﺓﺃﺮﻤﻠﻟ ﻲﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﺔﻳﺮﺣ . ( ﺮﺧﺄﺘﳌﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﺸﺘﻧﺍ ﱃﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻹﺎﺑ ﺮﻜﺒﳌﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﻔﺘﺧﺍ ﱃﺇ ﺎﻀﻳﺃ ﺓﺭﺎﺷﻹﺍ ﺐﳚ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻠﻟ . ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﻥﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻝﺪﺗ ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺴﻟﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﻌﺑ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺗ ﻑﺮﻋ ﺙﻼﺜﻟﺍ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﻮﳓ ﻝﻼﻘﺘﺳﻻﺍ ﺪ ،ﺮﺧﺄﺘﻣ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﺔﻘﻄﻨﳌﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﺰﻴﲤ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﻳﺪﻟﺍ ﺪﻴﻟﺎﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﻚﻟﺬﻛ . ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﺗ ﻊﻣ ﻖﻓﺍﻮﺘﺗ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣﻹﺍ ﺕﺍﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﰊﻭﺭﻭﻷﺍ ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ ﻊﻣ ﺏﺭﺎﻘﺘﻳ ﺭﻮﻄ ، ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ﻲﻫ ﻭ ﺀﺎﻔﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﱃﺇ ﺎﻬﻘﻳﺮﻃ ﰲ ﺓﺰﻴﻣ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻬﻨﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻤﻬﻣ ﺔﺒﺴﻧ ﺭﻮﻬﻇ ﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻟﻮﴰ . ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻘﻠﻟﺍ ﻢﻴﻈﻨﺗ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻞﻤﻌﺗ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺮﻓﻷﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﺽﺮﻔﺗ ﻭ ﺕﺎﳚﺰﻟﺍ ﺐﺗﺮﺗ ﺮﺳﻷﺍ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﻲﺿﺎﳌﺍ ﰲ ﺟﻮﻣ ﺕﺍﺩﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﻝﺍﺰﺗ ﻻ ﻭ ،ﲔﻓﺮﻄﻟﺍ ﲔﺑ ﺔﺜﻳﺪﳊﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻮﻄﺘﻟﺍ ﻢﻏﺭ ﺎﻴﻟﺎﺣ ﺓﺩﻮ . ﱵﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﺩﺍﺮﻓﻸﻟ ﺓﲑﺒﻛ ﺔﻳﺮﺣ ﻲﻄﻌﺗ ﻻ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻕﻮﺳ ﺎﻬﻓﺮﻋ ﻭ ﻕﻮﻘﺣ ﻊﻴﺳﻮﺗ ﺐﻠﻄﺘﻳ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﲔﺴﻨﳉﺍ ﻼﻜﻟ ﻥﻮﻧﺎﻘﻟﺎﺑ ﲔﺴﻨﳉﺍ ﲔﺑ ﺓﺍﻭﺎﺴﳌﺍ ﻭ ﺓﺃﺮﳌﺍ (Kateb, 2008) .

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8 ﻰﻠﻋ ﺚﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﺮﺼﻳ ﺚﻴﺣ ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺴﻟﺍ ﻪﺘﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻪﻟ ﻪﺟﻮﳌﺍ ﺪﻘﻨﻟﺍ ﺲﻔﻧ ﺃ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﻥ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣﻹﺍ ﺕﺍﺮﺷﺆﳌﺍ ﺏﺮﻐﳌﺍ ﻥﺍﺪﻠﺑ ﰲ ﰊﻭﺭﻭﻷﺍ ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ ﻊﻣ ﺏﺭﺎﻘﺘﻳ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﻊﻣ ﻖﻓﺍﻮﺘﺗ ، ﻦﳓ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻋ ﻪﻟ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﲑﻐﺗ ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ﺔﻴﺑﻭﺭﻭﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺑﺭﺎﻐﳌﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺍ ﲔﺑ ﺎﻓﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﻥﺃ ﻑﺮﻌﻧ ﺬﻫ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻥﺎﻛ ﲑﺒﻛ ﻦﻳﺎﺒﺗ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ ﻦﻜﻟ ﺏﺭﺎﻘﺗ ﻪﺟﻭﺃ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﺢﻴﺤﺻ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﳐ ،ﻩﺯﺍﺮﺑﺇ ﺚﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﺏﺮﻐﳌﺍ ﻝﻭﺪﻟ ﺦﻳﺭﺎﺘﻟﺍ ﱪﻋ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟ ﺎﻬﻠﻴﻠﲢ ﻭ ﺎﺎﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣﺇ ﺎﻨﺗﺩﺎﻓﺃ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ . ﻞﺒﻘﺘﺴﳌﺍ ﰲ ﺎﻧﺪﻴﻔﺘﺳ ﺓﺰﻴﻤﺘﻣ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ . ﺕ . ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺴﻧ ﺓﺭﻮﺛ ﺭﻮﻬﻇ ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻛ ﲑﻏ ﰊﺮﻌﻟﺍ ﺏﺮﻐﳌﺍ ﻝﻭﺩ ﰲ

L’émergence des femmes au Maghreb : une révolution inachevée

ﺖﻔﻠﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻥﺇ ﰒ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻊﺒﻄﻟﺎﺑ ﻮﻫ ﰊﺮﻌﻟﺍ ﺏﺮﻐﳌﺍ ﺔﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻝﻮﺣ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺮﻐﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻩﺎﺒﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﻫ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ ﺮﻬﻈﺗ ﺚﻴﺣ ،ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻦﺴﻟ ﲑﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﻻﺍ ﻊﻣ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺬ ﺓﺪﻣ ﻉﺎﺴﺗﺍ ﰲ ﲑﺧﻷﺍ ﺍ ﻌﻟﺍ ـ ﻪﺟﺍﻮﺗ ﺔﻴﻠﺋﺎﻋ ﺔﻴﻠﺧ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻨﺒﻣ ﺔﻴﺑﺭﺎﻐﳌﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻑﻭﺮﻌﳌﺎﻓ ،ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣﺇ ﺔﻘﻴﻘﺣ ﻲﻫ ﻭ ﺔﺑﻭﺰ ﺭﺎﻴﺍ ﻟﺍ ﻱﺪﻴﻠﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻲﻠﺒﻘﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻨﻟﺍ ﺬ ﺎﻬﻠﺧﺪﻳ ﻥﺃ ﺭﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﻻﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺃ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻳﺪﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺍﱪﳎ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺎﳌﺎﻃ ﻱ ﻝﻼﻘﺘﺳﻻﺍ ﺪﻌﺑ ﺔﻴﳌﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺓﺪﻳﺪﳉﺍ ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﺔﺳﺎﻴﺴﻟﺍ ﺎﻀﻳﺃ ﻭ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ . ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﺓﺮﺘﻓ ﻝﻮﻃ ﻥﺇ ﺔﻴﺑﺭﺎﻐﳌﺍ ﺓﺮﺳﻷﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺑ ﺪﻋﺍﻮﻗ ﻭ ﲔﻧﺍﻮﻗ ﱃﺇ ﺖﻗﺆﻣ ﻭ ﻲﺳﺎﺳﺃ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ ﺪﻨﺘﺴﻳ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻠﻟ ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﻬﺳﺎﺳﺃ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ . ﻟﺎﻓ ﲔﺴﻨﳉﺍ ﲔﺑ ﺔﻴﻧﻮﻧﺎﻗ ﺓﺍﻭﺎﺴﻣ ﺪﺟﻮﺗ ﻻ ﺚﻴﺣ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﳎ ﰲ ﺶﻴﻌﻧ ﺎﻨﻧﺃ ﻞﻜﺸﳌﺍ ﺬ ﺭﻮﻛ ﺎﻴﻟﺎﺣ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﻖﻠﻄﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻭﺃ ﻞﻣﺎﻛ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ ﻥﻭﺮﻄﻴﺴﻣ » ﻟﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺍ ﺬ ﻱﺭﻮﻛ «. ﻫ ﺬ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺰﻜﺗﺮﺘﺳ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣﻹﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻄﻌﳌﺍ ﺔﻧﺭﺎﻘﻣ ﻦﻜﻟ ﻭ ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺍ ﱃﺇ ﺎﻧﺩﻮﻘﻳ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﺍ ﻘﻄﻨﻤﻠﻟ ﺙﻼﺜﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺑﺭﺎﻐﳌﺍ ﺔ ) ﺲﻧﻮﺗ ،ﺏﺮﻐﳌﺍ،ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ( ﺒﻨﻟ ﻲﺳﺎﻴﺴﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻨﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺕﺎﻓﻼﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﲔ ﻱﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﻟﺍ ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ﻭ ﺮﻓ ﺞﺘﻨﺗ ﱂ ﻭ ﻝﻼﻘﺘﺳﻻﺍ ﺪﻌﺑ ﻭ ﺭﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﻻﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺛﺃ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﱵ ﻒﻗﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﰲ ﺎﺤﺿﺍﻭ ﺎﻗ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺮﻐﳝﺪﻟﺍ . ﻫ ﰲ ﺬ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﺓﺃﺮﳌﺍ ﺎﻳﺎﻀﻗ ﺐﺗﺎﻛ ﻝﺎﻤﻛ ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺚﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﺽﺮﻌﺘﺴﻳ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻩ ﻥﺮﻘﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ﺕﺎﺑﺍﺮﻄﺿﻻﺍ ﺓﲑﺗﻭ ﻭ ،ﻡﺎﻋ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ ﰊﺭﺎﻐﳌﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺍ ﺎﻬﻓﺮﻋ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﺌﺟﺎﻔﳌﺍ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﻫ ﺎﻨﺘﻗﻭ ﱃﺇ ﻲﺿﺎﳌﺍ ﺬ ﺍ (Kateb, 2015) . ﻚﻟﺫ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻩﺮﻜﺸﻧ ﻭ ﻪﻴﻨﺘﻘﻧ ﻲﻜﻟ ﺎﻨﻟ ﻪﻠﺳﺭﺃ ﺚﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﻦﻜﻟ ﺏﺎﺘﻜﻟﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺨﺴﻧ ﻚﻠﺘﳕ ﻻ .

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9 ﺙ . ﲔﺛﻼﺜﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﻍﻮﻠﺑ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻥﻭﺪﺑ ﺀﺎﻘﺒﻟﺍ ﻭ : ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺓﺯﺭﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﺔﺌﻔﻟﺍ

Avoir 30 ans et être encore célibataire: une catégorie émergente en Algérie

ﻩﺬﳍ ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳉﺍ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﻖﻳﺮﻃ ﻦﻋ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺮﺧﺄﺗ ﻝﻮﺣ ﺔﻴﻠﻴﻠﲢ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﻦﻋ ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ ﻲﻫ ﻥﺃ ﺎﲟ ﺓﺮﻫﺎﻈﻟﺍ ، ﺓﺃﺮﳌﺍ ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ﻭ ﺩﺮﻔﻟﺍ ﺓﺎﻴﺣ ﰲ ﺔﻴﺳﺎﺳﺃ ﺓﻮﻄﺧ ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻓ ﺓﺃﺮﳌﺎ ﺗ ﻻ ﱵﻟﺍ ﻪﻀﻓﺮﻳ ﻊﺿﻮﻟﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﻭ ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﲑﻏ ﺎﻌﺿﻭ ﺶﻴﻌﺗ ﺝﻭﺰﺘ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ﻢﻴﻘﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻭﺪﺒﻳ ﻭ ،ﻊﻤﺘﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻠﻟ ﻲﻄﻌﺗ ﺰﺘﳌﺍ ﺓﺃﺮﻤﻠﻟ ،ﺔﺑﺯﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺓﺃﺮﳌﺍ ﻦﻣ ﱪﻛﺃ ﺔﻤﻴﻗ ﺔﺟﻭ ﺍ ﻩﺬ ﺔﻄﺒﺗﺮﳌﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﻥﺃ ﻻﺇ ﻢﻴﻘﻟ ﻝﻼﺧ ﺎﻤﻤﻌﻣ ﻭ ﺍﺮﻜﺒﻣ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺚﻴﺣ ، ﻲﺳﺎﻴﻗ ﺖﻗﻭ ﰲ ﺔﻳﺭﺬﺟ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺗ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺕﺃﺮﻃ ﺍﺮﺧﺄﺘﻣ ﱄﺎﳊﺍ ﺖﻗﻮﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺢﺒﺻﺃ ﺔﻴﺿﺎﳌﺍ ﲔﺛﻼﺜﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﻮﻨﺴﻟﺍ ، ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻠﻟ ﺔﺜﻳﺪﳊﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻮﻄﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻦﺳ ﰲ ﻦﺟﻭﺰﺘﻳ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﱃﺇ ﲑﺸﺗ 30 ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﺔﻨﺳ 18 ﺔﻨﺳ ﻡﺎﻋ ﰲ 1966 ﻥﻮﺟﻭﺰﺘﻳ ﻝﺎﺟﺮﻟﺍ ﻭ ﰲ ﻦﺳ 33 ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﺔﻨﺳ 24 ، ﺔﻨﺳ ﺎﻤﻛ ﺏ ﺕﺰﻔﻗ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ 12 ﻭ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﻯﺪﻟ ﺔﻨﺳ 9 ﻯﺪﻟ ﺕﺍﻮﻨﺳ ﻝﺎﺟﺮﻟﺍ . ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳉﺍ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟﺎﻓ ، ﻯﱪﻜﻟﺍ ﻥﺪﳌﺍ ﰲ ﻂﻘﻓ ﻩﺪﳒ ﻻ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﻩﺪﻬﺸﻳ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﲑﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﻻﺍ ﻥﺇ ﺓﺮﺘﻔﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﳍ 1966 -1998 ﻒﺸﻜﻳ ﺟ ﻭ ﺎﳍﺎﴰ ﺎﻬﻠﻤﻛﺄﺑ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺖﺴﻣ ﺪﻗ ﺎﺃ ﻮﻨ ﺎ. ﺬﻨﻤﻓ ﺔﻨﺳ 1966 ﲔﻤﺴﻗ ﱃﺇ ﻢﺴﻘﻨﻳ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻦﺳ ﻥﺃ ﺪﳒ ، : ﻨﳉﺍ ﰲ ـ ﻴﺣ ﺏﻮ ـ ﻟﺍ ﺚ ـ ﺝﺍﻭﺰ ﺒﳌﺍ ـ ﺚﻴﺣ ﻝﺎﻤﺸﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺮﻜ ﻥﺃ ﻒﻗﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ ،ﺪﻴﻟﺎﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻊﺒﺘﺗ ﺎﻤﻠﻗ ﺰﻴﻤﺘﺗ ﻭ ﺑ ﻦﺴﻟ ﲑﺒﻛ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﺎ ﻭﺰﻟﺍ ،ﺝﺍ ﻔﺗﺭﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺴﻓ ﻝﺎﺟﺮﻟﺍ ﻯﺪﻟ ﺎﻣﺃ ﻣ ﺮﺜﻛﺃ ﻝﺎﻤﺸﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻊ ﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ، ﺏﻮﻨﳉﺍ ﻦ ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳉﺍ ﻞﻴﻠ ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ ﻮﻴﺳﻮﺴﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﳌﺎﺑ ﻂﺒﺗﺮﻣ ﺕﺍﺭﻮﻄﺘﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﳍ ﺔﻴﻓﺎﻘﺜﻟﺍ ﻭ : ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ،ﺮﻀﺤﺘﻟﺎﻛ ) ﻭ ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗ ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ﺙﺎﻧﻹﺍ ( ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﻭ ، . ﻊﻣ ﻞﻤﻋ ﺐﺼﻨﻣ ﺩﺎﳚﺇ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﻌﺻ ﻥﻭﺪﺠﻴﻓ ﻝﺎﺟﺮﻟﺍ ﺎﻣﺃ ، ﻦﻬﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﺑ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﻪﻟ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﺮﺧﺄﺗ ﻥﺇ ﺘﺴﳌﺍ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﻻﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﻄﺒﻠﻟ ﺮﻤ ،ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻞﻴﺟﺄﺗ ﱃﺇ ﻢﻬﻌﻓﺩ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﻭ ، ﱪﲡ ﱵﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺔﻣﺯﺃ ﱃﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﺿﺇ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻥﻭﺪﺑ ﺀﺎﻘﺒﻟﺍ ﻥﻮﻠﻀﻔﻴﻓ ﻢﻬﻀﻌﺑ ﺎﻣﺃ ﻢﻫﺮﺳﺃ ﻊﻣ ﺶﻴﻌﻠﻟ ﲔﺟﻭﺰﺘﻣ ﺎﺻﺎﺨﺷﺃ .

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10 ﻡﺎﻣﺃ ﺎﻘﺋﺎﻋ ﻒﻘﻳ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻥﻭﺪﳚ ﺹﺎﺨﺷﻷﺍ ﺾﻌﺑ ﻥﺈﻓ ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ ﻮﻴﺳﻮﺴﻟﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﱃﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻹﺎﺑ ﻘﻌﻟﺍ ﲑﻐﺗ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻤﻛ ، ﻢﺎﺣﻮﻤﻃ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﻝﻮﺻﻭ ﰲ ﻢﻫﺎﺳ ﺔﻴﻠ ﻳ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﳌﺍ ﱃﺇ ﺖﻗﻮﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻩﺪﻬﺸ ﻦﻬﻤﻴﻠﻌﺗ ﺔﻠﺻﺍﻮﳌ ﻦﻬﺟﺍﻭﺯ ﻥﺮﺧﺆﻳ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺎﻓ ﱄﺎﳊﺍ ﻗ ﺔﻠﻘﺘﺴﻣ ﺔﻔﻴﻇﻭ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻝﻮﺼﺤﻠﻟ ﺎﻀﻳﺃ ﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻞﺒ ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺓﺎﺘﻔﻟﺎﺑ ﻁﺎﺒﺗﺭﻻﺍ ﺎﻀﻳﺃ ﻥﻮﻠﻀﻔﻳ ﻢﻫﺮﺳﺃ ﻭ ﻝﺎﺟﺮﻟﺍ ﻥﻷ . ﺎﻣ ﻞﻛ ﻴﻠﻋ ﺐﺗﺮﺘﻳ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻨﻟﺍ ﻮﻫ ﻪﺘﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺐﳚ ،ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻕﻮﺳ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﺮﺧﺄﺗ ﺎﻬ ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ﻭ ،ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻬﻨﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻭﺰﻌﻟﺍ ﺘﺍ ﰲ ﺖﺠﺘﻧ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﺌﻔﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ـ ﳉﺍ ﻊﻤ ـ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺍ ﰲ ﺎﻀﻳﺃ ﻭ ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰ ﺔﻴﻣﻼﺳﻹﺍ ﻭ ﻭ ﰲ ﺮﻤﺘﺴﺗ ﻉﺎﺴﺗﻻﺍ (Ouadah-Bedidi, 2005) . ﱃﺇ ﺕﺭﺎﺷﺃ ﺎﺃ ﺎﲟ ،ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺮﺧﺄﺗ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﻞﻣﺎﻌﻛ ﻲﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﺔﺜﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﺯﱪﺗ ﱂ ﻓ ﺔﻴﻠﻘﻌﻟﺍ ﲑﻐﺗ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ، ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳﻭ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﲔﺑ ﺓﺪﻴﻃﻭ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﻙﺎﻨﻬ ﺢﺒﺻﺃ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺴﻓ ﺎﻌﻔﺗﺮﻣ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺍﺮﺣ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺎﻤﻠﻛﻭ ،ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﺏﻮﻠﺳﺄﺑ ﺎﻣﻮﻜﳏ ، ﻤﻛ ﺎ ﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺔﺻﺮﻔﻟ ﻟﺍ ﻲﻘﻠﺘﻟ ﺕﺎﻴﺘﻔﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻣﺃ ﺖﺤﻴﺗﺃ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺘﻠﻌ ﻴ ﻞﻤﻌﻟﺍﻭ ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻦﻳﺩﺎﻴﻣ ﰲ ﺏﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﺐﻧﺎﺟ ﱃﺇ ﻦﻫﺩﻮﺟﻭﻭ ﻢ ﳍ ﺖﺤﺒﺻﺃﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻞﺒﻗ ﻑﺭﺎﻌﺘﻠﻟ ﺓﺩﺪﻌﺘﻣ ﺎﻓﻭﺮﻇ ﻖﻠﺧ ﻦ ﺎﻗﻼﻋ ﰲ ﺓﲑﺒﻛ ﺔﻳﺮﺣ ﻦ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ . ﻴﺑ ﻑﻼﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﻯﺪﻣ ﺔﺜﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﺕﺯﺮﺑﺃ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺓﺮﻫﺎﻈﻟ ﰲﺍﺮﻐﳉﺍ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻄﺳﺍﻮﺑ ـ ﻦ ﴰ ـ ﺏﻮﻨﺟ ﻭ ﻝﺎ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺓﺮﺛﺆﳌﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ . ﺝ . ﻥﺍﺮﻳﺇ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ : ﺎﻬﺟﻭ ﻥ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﺪﺣﺍﻭ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻ

ALGERIE-IRAN : DEUX VISAGES D’UNE MEME TRANSITION DE LA FECONDITE ﺬﻨﻣ ﺎﺘﻓﺮﻋ ﺪﻘﻓ ﻥﺎﺘﻤﻠﺴﻣ ﻥﺎﺘﻟﻭﺩ ﺎﻤﺃ ﺎﲟ ﻥﺍﺮﻳﺇ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﲔﺑ ﺔﻧﺭﺎﻘﻣ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﻦﻋ ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ ﻲﻫ ﺢﺒﺻﺃ ﻥﺃ ﺬﻨﻣ ﺀﺎﺟ ﺽﺎﻔﳔﻻﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ،ﺔﻴﻣﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﺽﺎﻔﳔﺍ ﱪﻛﺃ ﺓﲑﺧﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﺸﻌﻟﺍ ﻞﺒﻗ ﻭ ﲔﺣ ﰲ ﻂﺳﻮﺘﳌﺍ ﰲ ﲔﻠﻔﻃ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻠﻟ 20 ﻞﺜﳝ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺔﻨﺳ 7 . ﺎﻔﳔﻻﺍ ﺍﺬﳍ ﺔﻴﻠﺻﻷﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﺇ ﺽ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻠﻟ ﻂﺳﻮﺘﳌﺍ ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﻊﺟﺍﺮﺗ ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ،ﺎﻣﺎﲤ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﳐ ﻥﻮﻜﺗ ﻥﺃ ﻦﻜﳝ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﻲﻔﻓ ،ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻠﻟ ﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﻊﻧﺍﻮـﳌ ﻒﺜﻜﳌﺍ ﺀﻮﺠﻠﻟﺍ ﱃﺇ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻊﺟﲑﻓ ﻥﺍﺮﻳﺇ ﰲ ﺎﻣﺃ ،ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﺍﺬﳍ ﻲﺴﻴﺋﺮﻟﺍ ﻙﺮﶈﺍ ﲑﺧﻷﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﱪﺘﻌﻳ

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11 ﳍﺎﻓ ،ﻞﻤـﳊﺍ ﻑﺪ ﻦﻣ ﲔﺗﺎﻫ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﺍ ﱘﺪﻘﺗ ﻮﻫ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﲑﺴﻔﺗ ﻞﺒﻗ ﲔﺘﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻓﻼﺘﺧﻻﺍ . ﺲﻔﻧ ﺐﺴﺣ ﻭ ﺓﺮﺘﻔﻟﺍ ﺲﻔﻧ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻭ ﻪﺑﺎﺸﺘﻣ ﻮﻫ ﻭ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﰲ ﺎﺿﺎﻔﳔﺍ ﻥﺍﺮﻳﺇ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺕﺪﻬﺷ ﺪﻘﻟ ﻢﺎﻴﺣ ﻥﻭﺮﺧﺆﻳ ﺏﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺪﳒ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ،ﻒﻠﺘﳐ ﺽﺎﻔﳔﻻﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﻂﻄﳐ ﻥﺃ ﲑﻏ ،ﺓﲑﺗﻮﻟﺍ ﺟﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ـ ،ﻞﻤﳊﺍ ﻊﻧﺍﻮﻣ ﻕﺮﻃ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﺍ ﱃﺇ ﻥﻮﻬﺠﺘﻳ ﰒ ،ﺔﻴﻠﺳﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴ ﻦﺳ ﻥﺃ ﺎﲟ ﻭ ﻥﺍﺮﻳﺇ ﰲ ﻭ ﻙﺮﶈﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻞﻤﳊﺍ ﻊﻧﺍﻮﻣ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﺍ ﻭ ،ﺽﺎﻔﳔﻻﺍ ﺍﺬﳍ ﺩﺪﶈﺍ ﻞﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻦﻜﻳ ﱂ ﻮﻬﻓ ﻊﻔﺗﺮﻳ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻚﻟﺬﻟ ﻲﺴﻴﺋﺮﻟﺍ . ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗ ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ﻭ ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ﻭ ﻱﺭﺎﻀﳊﺍ ﻡﺪﻘﺘﻠﻟ ﻊﺑﺎﺗ ﻥﺍﺮﻳﺇ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﺍ ﻥﺇ . ﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﻻ ﻩﺎﲡﻻﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺪﳒ ﲔﺘﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﲔﺗﺎﻫ ﰲ ﻦﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺢﻳﺮﺼﺘﻟﺍ ﰎ ﺪﻗ ﻭ ﻪﺑﺎﺸﺘﻣ ﺎﺒﻳﺮﻘﺗ ﻞﻤﳊﺍ ﻊﻧﺍﻮﻣ ﻝ ﺔﻨﺳ ﺬﻨﻣ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻪﻌﻴﺠﺸﺗ ﻭ ﺔﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﻑﺮﻃ 1983 ﺔﻨﺳ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ 1989 ﻥﺫﺇ ﺕﺎﻓﻼﺘﺧﻻﺎﻓ ،ﻥﺍﺮﻳﺇ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﰲ ﻦﻤﻜﺗ . ﺏﺎﺒﺸﻟﺎﺑ ﺖﻔﺼﻋ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﺔﻣﺯﻷﺎﺑ ﺮﺴﻔﻳ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺮﺧﺄﺗ ﻥﺇ ﺯﺃ ﻢﻗﺎﻔﺗ ﺪﳒ ﺎﺎﺳﺎﻜﻌﻧﺍ ﲔﺑ ﻦﻣ ﻭ ﻦﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﺔﻣ . ﲑﺧﺄﺗ ﱃﺇ ﺏﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﺖﻌﻓﺩ ﺓﺭﻮﻫﺪﺘﳌﺍ ﻑﻭﺮﻈﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﻥﺃ ﺚﻴﺣ ،ﺍﲑﺜﻛ ﻢﻬﺟﺍﻭﺯ ﺍﻭﺮﺧﺆﻳ ﱂ ﺏﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﻦﻜﻟ ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ ﺔﻣﺯﺃ ﺖﻓﺮﻋ ﻥﺍﺮﻳﺇ ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ،ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﱐﺍﺮﻳﻹﺍ ﻱﺪﻴﻠﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﰲ ﺕﻻﻮﲢ ﺙﺪﳛ ﱂ ﻚﻟﺬﻓ ،ﲑﻐﺘﻳ ﱂ ﻭ ﻲﻘﺑ ﻱﺪﻴﻠﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ . ﻥﺇ ﺎﺑ ﺮﺛﺄﺘﻳ ﱂ ﺮﻜﺒﻣ ﻦﺳ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻱﺭﺎﺒﺟﺇ ﺮﻣﺃ ﻭ ﻡﺍﺰﺘﻟﺍ ﻪﻨﻜﻟ ﻭ ﲔﻴﻧﺍﺮﻳﻺﻟ ﻲﺸﻴﻌﳌﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﳌﺍ ﺽﺎﻔﳔ ﺮﻬﳌﺍ ﺔﻤﻴﻗ ﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺀﺍﺮﺟﺈﺑ ﻖﻠﻌﺘﻳ ﺎﻤﻴﻓ ﻢﻬﻳﺪﻟ . ﺔﻟﻭﺩ ﻞﻛ ﻭ ﺎﻔﻠﺘﳐ ﻥﻮﻜﻳ ﻥﺃ ﻦﻜﳝ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﻩﺎﲡﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻬﺟ ﻦﻣ ﻝﺪﻳ ﱐﺍﺮﻳﻹﺍ ﻭ ﻱﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﻝﺎﺜﳌﺍ ﺎﻴﻓﺎﻘﺛ ﻭ ﺎﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﺍ ، ﺎﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ ﻉﻮﻨﺘﺗ ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ﺎﻔﻗﺍﻮﻣ ﲎﺒﺘﺗ . ﻬﺟ ﻦﻣ ﲔﺘﻤﻠﺴﳌﺍ ﲔﺘﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﲔﺗﺎﻫ ﻯﺮﺧﺃ ﺔ ﻲﻣﻼﺳﻹﺍ ﻦﻳﺪﻟﺍ ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ﻭ ﲏﻳﺪﻟﺍ ﻉﺯﺍﻮﻟﺍ ﲑﺛﺄﺗ ﱃﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻹﺎﺑ ﱂﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﺍ ﻉﺮﺳﺃ ﺎﺘﻓﺮﻋ (Ouadah-Bedidi & Lebugle-Mojdehi, 2007) . ﺎﺸﺘﻟ ﺎﻃﺮﺷ ﺲﻴﻟ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺍ ﺲﻧﺎﲡ ﻥﺃ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﺖﻨﻴﺑ ﺎ ﺭﺎﻘﺗ ﻭ ﺎ ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ ﳏ ـ ﺕﺍﺩﺪ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ، ﺽﺎﻔﳔﻻﺍ ﺓﲑﺗﻭ ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ ﻥﺎﺎﺸﺘﺗ ﻥﺎﺘﻟﻭﺩ ﻥﺍﺮﻳﺇ ﻭ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺎﻓ ﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﻦﻜﻟ ـ ﺎﻋﻮﻧ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﳐ ﻞ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ﺓﺎﻴﳊﺍ ﱃﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻹﺎﺑ ﺪﻴﻟﺎﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻑﺍﺮﻋﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻧﺎﻳﺪﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺣﺎﻧ ﻦﻣ ﺏﺭﺎﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻢﻏﺭ ،ﺎﻣ .

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12 ح . ﻦﻳﺎﺒﺗ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ : ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺗ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻗﻼﻄﻧﺍ 1998

Fécondité et nuptialité différentielles en Algérie : l’apport du recensement de 1998 ﻰﻠﻋ ﺀﻮﻀﻟﺍ ﻂﻴﻠﺴﺗ ﻢﺘﻳ ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺽﺎﻔﳔﺍ ﻝﻮﺣ ﺔﻴﻠﻴﻠﲢ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﻦﻋ ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ ﻲﻫ ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣﻹﺍ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻤﻓ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ (ENSP) ﻡﺎﻌﻟ 1971 ﺢﺴﳌﺍ ﻭ PAPFAM ﻡﺎﻌﻟ 2002 ﻦﻣ ﺮﺜﻛﺄﺑ ﺖﻀﻔﳔﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺪﳒ 70 % ﲔﺑ 1968 -1971 ﻭ 1999 -2002 . ﻴﺗﲑﺧﻷﺍ ﲔﺘﻳﺮﺸﻌﻟﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﺃﺪﺑ ﺽﺎﻔﳔﻻﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﻥﺇ ـ ﺸﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﺮﻘﻠﻟ ﻦ ـ ﻣ ﻦﻳﺮ ـ ﺒﻫ ﻊ ـ ﻗ ﻁﻮ ـ ﺑ ﺭﺪ ـ 50 % ﻓﺍﺮﻐﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﲔﺤﺴﳌﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻭ ، ـ ﻴﺧﻷﺍ ﲔﻴ ـ ﻦﻳﺮ 1992 (PAPCHILD) ﻭ 2002 (PAPFAM) ﻥﺎﻜﺴﻟﺍ ﻱﺩﺍﺪﻌﺗ ﻭﺃ 1987 ﻭ 1998 . ﺕﺍﻮﻨﺳ ﺔﻳﺍﺪﺑ ﰲ 2000 ﺑ ـ ﻣﻷﺍ ﺃﺪ ـ ﺏ ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﻊﺟﺍﺮﺗ ﺪﻌﺒﻓ ﻪﺘﻳﺎ ﰲ ﺮ 17 % ﲔﺑ 1995 ﻭ 1999 ﱄﺍﻮﲝ ﻊﻔﺗﺭﺍ ﺪﻴﻟﺍﻮﳌﺍ ﺩﺪﻋ ﻥﺈﻓ 20 % ﲔﺑ 2000 ﻭ 2005 . ﻚﻟﺫ ﻊﺟﺮﻳ ﺔﻃﺎﺴﺒﺑ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﺍ ﻒﻗﻮﺗ ﱃﺇ ،ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺯ ﻦﺳ ﻪﺑ ﺢﻤﺴﺗ ﻻ ﺎﻣ ﺍﺬﻫ ﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻦﺴﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﺣ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺐﳚ ﺕﺎﻴﻄﻌﳌﺍ ،ﺔﺼﻗﺎﻧ ﱪﺘﻌﺗ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﳜﺭﺎﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻠﺣﺮﳌﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺢﺿﺍﻮﻟﺍ ﺽﺎﻔﳔﻼﻟ ﺖﺑﺭﺎﻗ ﺔﻳﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠﻟ ﲑﺜﳌﺍ ﻄﺧ ﺔﻳﺍﺪﺑ ﻊﻣ ﺎﻬﺘﻳﺎ ﻰﻠﻋ ،ﺭﻮﻬﻈﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺔﻀﻣﺎﻏ ﻭ ﺔﻓﻭﺮﻌﻣ ﲑﻏ ﺓﻮ ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﻞﻴﲣ ﺔﻟﻭﺎﺤﲟ ﻡﻮﻘﻨﺳ ﺔﻣﺩﺎﻘﻟﺍ . ﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﳌﺍ ﺽﺎﻔﳔﺍ ﻥﺇ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻲﻠﻜﻟﺍ ﻝﺪﻌﳌﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺎﲟ ﺎﻳﺭﺬﺟ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺨﻠ 8.1 ﻞﻔﻃ ﺣﺍﻮﻟﺍ ﺓﺃﺮـﻤﻠﻟ ـ ﺔﻨﺳ ﺓﺪ 1970 ﱃﺇ 2.2 ﺔﻨﺳ 2002 ، ﺖﻴﻘﺑ ﺎﻬﺿﺎﻔﳔﺍ ﻢﻏﺭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺧ ﻦﻜﻟ ﻭ ﻔﺗﺮﻣ ﺭﺪﻗ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺧ ﻝﺪﻌﻣ ﻥﺃ ﺎﲟ ﺔﻌ ﺏ 11.1 ﺔﻨﺳ ﺔﺟﻭﺰﺘﳌﺍ ﺓﺪﺣﺍﻮﻟﺍ ﺓﺃﺮﻤﻠﻟ ﻞﻔﻃ 1970 ﱃﺇ 5.9 ﺕﺍﻮﻨﺳ ﺔﻳﺍﺪﺑ ﰲ 2000 . ﻞﻤﻋ ﻭ ﻲﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﳌﺍ ،ﺮﻀﺤﺘﻟﺎﻛ ﻱﺭﺎﻀﳊﺍ ﻡﺪﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻋ ﻊﺒﺘﺗ ﺔﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻭﺪﺒﻳ ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻟﺍ . ﺔﻠﺣﺮﻣ ﺔﻳﺍﺪﺑ ﺩﺪﳛ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﻦﺳ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺮﺛﺆﺗ ﺖﻟﺍﺯﺎﻣ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﺍﺫﺇ ، ﺔﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣ ﻚﻟﺬﻛ ﺩﺪﳛ ﻭ ﻲﻠﻌﻔﻟﺍ ﺮﺛﺎﻜﺘﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﲢ ﱵﻟﺍ ﻞﻤﳊﺍ ﻊﻧﺍﻮﻣ ﺩﺪ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺧ ﻭ ، ﺔﻌﺑﺎﺘﻣ ﺐﳚ ﺔﻳﺮﺋﺍﺰﳉﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺽﺎﻔﳔﻻ ﻲﺳﺎﺳﻷﺍ ﻙﺮﺤﻤﻠﻟ ﺪﻴﺟ ﻢﻬﻓ ﻞﺟﺃ ﻦﻣ ﺎ ﺔﺻﺎﳋﺍ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﲔﻴﻌﺗ ﻭ ﺝﺍﻭﺰﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﺧ ﻭ ﺔﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻮﻄﺗ . ﺪﻤﺘﻌﺗ ﺔﺑﻮﺼﳋﺍ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﻥﺇ

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