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IAMP 2008, Helsinki 20-22 May

« Towards a European Understanding of

Academic Education for the Military Officers? »

Sylvain Paile, researcher

Unité d’Etudes européennes

On behalf of the Royal Military School of Belgium With the participation of the Federal Sciences Policy

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Introductory statements:

European developments

Officers’ Education

Changes in the nature of the missions Changes in the social environment

Educating elites

-Operations other than war -Multilateralism

-Civilian participation

-European Security and Defence Policy: 27 policies, -« Security » concept

-CSDP: collective defence mechanism

-From conscription to professional armies -Re-conversion difficulties

-Social acceptability of the officers

« Scholar soldiers » « Soldier-stateman »

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Question:

Did the national military officers education systems adapted to

such changes of their environment in a common way in Europe?

Some clues:

-

The convergence towards the civilian higher education

system

-

The latest reforms of the education policies of the schools,

academies and universities of defence

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1. Converging with or diverging from the university model?

Pr. Kirkels, Klinkert and Moelers (2003): « Sparta » VS. « Athens » officer

- Sparta officer: elite soldier

- Athens officer: intellectual elite, ready for dealing with the complexity of the social, economic and political tasks of his/her mission

- A call for more academic-oriented education for the military officers

Pr. Caforio (2000): « Divergent » VS. « Convergent » systems with the university education

- Comparing institutions educations

- Six criteria for classification: selection; teaching staff; share academic/military in the curriculum; organisation of the academic/military aspects in the

curriculum; diploma’s value; type of socialisation within the institution

- A ranking

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These two distinctions are not contradicting:

• Nature of the officer / socialisation process

• Convergence-Athens and Divergent-Sparta very much interlinked • Both favour the academic aspect of the education

Is the convergent-divergent distinction sufficient for the analysis of the education policies of the institutions?

• Very accurate distinction for « monolithic » education systems • The two aspects academic/military remain necessary for an officer

education

• « divergence » may be hidden

n N+1 N+2 N+3 N+4 N+5 N+6 N+7

Mil Ac Gr

Application School (Captain) University of the Bundeswehr Hambourg or Munich

Germany

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Distinction « Sparta-Athens » =

why

focusing on the intellectual education?

« Divergence-Convergence » =

What

is done?

Analysis of the education policies =

How

is it done?

Two paths may be taken, in our sense, by the education policies:

-

Increasing the amount of academic teachings in the

curriculum

-

« delegate » parts or whole of the academic education to the

university system, ex: United-Kingdom (informal), Slovenia

(formal), France (mixed)

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2.

The Bologna Process, a will of excellence for the officer education

General philosophy of the Bologna Process:

• June, 19th 1999 Common declaration of the European Education Ministries (context: European Cultural Convention of the Council of europe)

• 46 signatory States today but no legal sanction attached

• A monitoring: rotating presidency (assisted by a Bologna Secretariat) collecting data and suggesting actions to be taken in a « Stocktaking » report presented during the presidency final conference

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Concretely: Uphold obstacles to actual mobility in the higher

education (Erasmus):

Diploma recognition = European Credit Transfer System

(ECTS) : 1 ECTS = 25-30h of student work

Curricula harmonisation = The duration of the education

cycle is not relevant : 180 ECTS Bachelor, 90-120 ECTS

Master, free for Doctorate studies

Quality assurance of the education = Quality-Assurance

Agencies European Register recently created with the help of

the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher

Education (ENQA)

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Bologna for the European education of the military officers

• Officer education institutions are under the authority of the MoDs, then not taken into account in the monitoring of the Process

• « Tuning » program

• The officer education institutions implemented the Process on a voluntary basis

• Prepares the ground for students and teaching staff exchanges or modules exchanges (ECTS basis)

• Coordination of organisation of the curricula: trimesters and semesters • The Bachelor is often dedicated to the apprenticeship of the national

realities of defence and language level might be low. Then we shall not separate too strictly the basic education from the advanced education

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3. A European education for a European defence

• There is a dynamic of convergence, in the spirit of the Athenian officer concept. A European education culture emerges from the Bologna’s implementation. We might then be looking forward to implement an

« ESDP culture »

• We must not force the dynamic but ease its implementation in the education policies

3 paths may be suggested:

Formal axis = acting on the conscience : make the student-officers aware of their role and the need for flexibility through use of cooperation

instruments (Erasmus), languages (English)

Normative axis = act on the amount of knowledge related to the security environment through the amount of teachings and their importance

Cross-over possibility = acting on conscience and knowledge : creating combined modules of education (a European environement for learning

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Conclusion:

Perfect convergence with civilian education is not meant to

exist, it is the representation of a dynamic

Global consensus over the need for academic education:

Bologna Process

This prepares the ground for actual mobility of the greatest

number

We must now transform this convergence of the minds to an

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