Permits issued for listed invasive species

Dans le document The sTaTus of biological invasions and Their managemenT in souTh africa 2017 (Page 158-162)

7. effeCtiveNeSS of reGuLatioNS

7.3. effectiveness of regulations relevant to managing alien species

7.3.2. Permits issued for listed invasive species

under the nem:ba a&is regulations, invasive species placed in category 2 can be owned, cultivated, harvested and traded only if a permit is granted to carry out these otherwise restricted activities. such a permit must also stipulate the responsibilities placed on the permit-holders to prevent the spread of the permitted species. The intention is to regulate ownership, cultivation and trade of invasive species that also have commercial value, and to prescribe responsibilities to permit holders to prevent spread. under certain circumstances, permits may also be issued for category 1(b) species, for example to scientific institutions and zoological gardens to either conduct research, or to house specimens for display in captivity.

a total of 647 permits were issued for restricted activities involving 50 alien taxa, including permits for multiple species that are listed as genera or families from various categories. most of the permits were issued for species listed as category 2 (480), followed by “context-specific” species that are listed in different categories (154), depending on where in the country they occur [e.g. Rattus rattus (house rat) is listed as 1b for off-shore islands but is not listed for the mainland, and species listed in category 1b (13) (Table 7.5)]. The highest number of permits was issued for mammals (317 permits for 15 species), followed by freshwater fishes (117 permits for seven species) and birds (85 permits for three species) (figure 7.2). The other taxa that received fewer permits were reptiles (58 permits for 10 species), terrestrial and freshwater plants (45 permits for 12 species), freshwater invertebrates (13 permits for two species) and marine invertebrates (12 permits for one species). There were no permits issued for microbes, marine plants, terrestrial invertebrates or amphibians.

tABle 7.5 Number of permits issued or refused for species listed in category 2 and other categories of the A&IS Regulatory lists (2016). ‘context specific’ refers to species that are listed in several categories depending on the area in which they occur (regulation by area).

tAxon neM:BA

CAtegory SpeCieS riSk

ASSeSSMent CoMpleted?

nuMBer oF perMitS grAnted

nuMBer oF perMitS reFuSed terreStriAl And

FreSHwAter plAntS (45 permits applied for)

1b Cryptostegia grandiflora (rubber vine) no 1 0

2 Acacia dealbata (silver wattle) Yes 3 0

Acacia mearnsii and hybrids (black wattle) Yes 6 0

Acacia melanoxylon and hybrids, varieties and

selections (blackwood) no 5 0

Agave sisalana (sisal) Yes 1 0

Nasturtium officinale (watercress) Yes 4 0

Pinus patula and hybrids (patula pine) Yes 3 0


specific Casuarina cunninghamiana (beefwood) Yes 10 0

Eucalyptus camaldulensis and hybrids

(river red gum) Yes 3 0

Murraya paniculata (listed as Murraya exotica

on the permit) (orange jessamine) Yes 1 0

Pinus pinaster and hybrids (cluster pine) Yes 4 0

Pinus radiata and hybrids (monterey pine) Yes 4 0

FreSHwAter inverteBrAteS (15 permits applied for)

2 Cherax cainii (smooth marron) no 5 0

Cherax tenuimanus (hairy marron) no 8 2

ChaPter 7IeffecTiveness of regulaTions

1b Carcinus maenas (green crab) Yes 12 0

FreSHwAter FiSHeS (121 permits applied for)


specific Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) no 27 0

Ctenopharyngodon idella (triploid grass carp) Yes 22 0

Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Yes 3 0

Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish) Yes 1 0

Micropterus dolomieu (smallmouth bass) Yes 1 0

Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) Yes 2 0

Oreochromis niloticus (nile tilapia) Yes 61 4

reptileS (59 permits applied for)

2 Basiliscus plumifrons (plumed basilisk) no 1 0

Bitis gabonica rhinoceros (gaboon viper) Yes 4 0

Centrochelys sulcata (spur-thighed tortoise) Yes 5 0

Chelydra serpentina (common snapping turtle) Yes 2 0

Gekko gecko (tokay gecko) Yes 1 0

Macrochelys temminckii (alligator snapping

turtle) Yes 2 0

Morelia spilotes (carpet/diamond python) no 14 0

Python bivittatus (burmese python) Yes 16 0

Trachemys species (slider turtles) no 1 0


specific Iguana iguana (green iguana) Yes 12 1

BirdS (85 permits applied for)

2 Acridotheres fuscus (jungle mynah) Yes 2 0

Psittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet) Yes 81 0


specific Alectoris chukar (chukar partridge) Yes 2 0

MAMMAlS (318 permits applied for)

2 Addax nasomaculatus (addax) Yes 1 0

Aepyceros melampus petersi (black-faced impala) Yes 1 0

Ammotragus lervia (barbary sheep) Yes 14 0

Antilope cervicapra (indian blackbuck) Yes 3 0

Axis axis (chital) Yes 7 0

Axis porcinus (hog deer) Yes 7 0

Cervus elaphus (red deer) Yes 3 0

Dama dama (fallow deer) Yes 71 0

Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (capybara) Yes 1 0

Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa (defassa waterbuck) Yes 1 0

Kobus leche kafuensis (Kafue lechwe) Yes 19 0

Kobus leche leche (red lechwe) Yes 165 1

Oryx dammah (oryx) Yes 22 0

Ovis aries musimon (mouflon) no 1 0


specific Erythrocebus patas (pata`s monkey) Yes 1 0

Tus of biological invasions and Their managemenT in souTh africa2017




61 44

18 12

Mammals freshwater fish Birds Reptiles Terrestrial plants freshwater

invertebrates Marine invertebrates Figure 7.2 The number of permits issued for restricted activities with listed invasive species in different taxa.

The species that had the highest number of permits issued for use of the species within south africa were Kobus leche leche (red lechwe) (196), Psittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet) (108), Oreochromis niloticus (nile tilapia) (94) and Dama dama (fallow deer) (72). a total of eight permits were refused, four for O. niloticus, two for Cherax tenuimanus (hairy marron), and one each for Iguana iguana (green iguana) and K. l. leche. The reasons why the permits were refused are that the national and provincial authorities took an in-principle decision not to allow the introduction of alien species to areas where they do not occur and in areas of biodiversity concern, and in some cases provinces did not to allow restricted activities with alien species regarded as high risk within their provinces. copies of risk assessments for all species that were permitted have been lodged with the dea, except for five species: Ovis aries musimon (mouflon), Morelia spilotes (carpet python), Basiliscus plumifrons (plumed basilisk), Cherax cainii (smooth marron), C. tenuimanus (hairy marron) and the genus Trachemys (slider turtles).

Permits allow the holders to engage in activities involving the alien species that would otherwise be restricted and several activities may be listed on one permit. The type of permit could be categorised into five broad categories (figure 7.3). The category with the highest proportion of permits (44%) issued was “trade” and permits is this category allowed the applicant to undertake several activities such as the possession, breeding, cultivation and trading with the listed invasive species (Table 7.6). The second highest proportion of permits (26%) was in the category “conveying” which allowed the permit holder to transport or move alien and invasive species from one locality to another. “Possession” had the third highest proportion of permits (21%), and this allowed the applicant to exercise physical control over and keep the permitted species. The other two categories “import”

(8%) and “research” (2%) had the lowest proportions of issued permits. The “import” category is for the import of species not yet in the country or for other listed species that are present in the country. research permits were issued to research institutions to conduct research on several aspects of listed alien and invasives species.

ChaPter 7IeffecTiveness of regulaTions 287





Trade conveying Possession Import Research

Figure 7.3 The number of permits issued for different categories of intended use. “Trade” refers to the selling or buying of any listed invasive species; “conveying” refers to moving or otherwise translocating any specimen of a listed invasive species; “Possession”

refers to exercising physical control over any specimen of a listed invasive species; “Import” refers to new introductions into the country of any listed alien species; and “Research” refers to the use of the species for research purposes.

tABle 7.6 Number of permits issued, and refused, between January 2016 and March 2017 or a range of restricted activities associated with five categories of intended use of invasive species. “conveying” refers to moving or otherwise translocating any specimen of a listed invasive species, “import” refers to new introductions into the country of listed alien species, “possession” refers to exercising physical control over any specimen of a listed invasive species, “research” refers to research studies on various aspects, and “trade” refers to selling or buying of any listed invasive species.

CAtegory reStriCted ACtivity perMitted nuMBer oF

perMitS iSSued nuMBer oF perMitS reFuSed

Conveying convey 156 0

convey and release 13 0

iMport import and research 5 0

import, possession, breeding, selling, release, transfer across catchments 0 2

import 44 0

poSSeSSion Possession and release 3 0

Possession, breeding and display purposes 1 0

Possession and breeding/growing 63 1

Possession 69 0

Possession, convey and dispose 1 0

Possession, breeding and conveying 0 1

Possession and convey 0 1

reSeArCH convey and research 5 0

Possession and research 4 0

Possession, breeding/growing and research 2 0

trAde Possession, breeding and selling 3 0

Possession, breeding, selling and discharging into waterways 2 0

Possession, breeding, selling and conveying 1 4

Possession, breeding, selling and research 1 0

Possession and selling 16 0

Possession and buying 1 0

Possession, breeding and selling 246 0

buying and conveying 10 0

Possession, growing and selling 7 0

Tus of biological invasions and Their managemenT in souTh africa2017

7.3.3. invasive species management programmes

The nem:ba requires [section 75 (4)] the minister to ensure the coordination and implementation of programmes for the prevention, control or eradication of invasive species. The act also empowers [section 75 (5)] the minister to establish an entity consisting of public servants to coordinate and implement programmes for the prevention, control or eradication of invasive species. The a&is regulations, published in 2014 under the nem:ba state further (in chapter 2 of the regulations) that “if an invasive species management Programme has been developed in terms of section 75(4) of the act, a person must control the listed invasive species in accordance with such programme”.

in many cases, the need for species-specific management programmes is clear, but neither the act, nor the regulations, provide any guidance on which of the listed invasive species should be the subject of such a programme.

The development of national-level, species-specific programmes for all listed alien species would be extremely onerous, and it has therefore been assumed that a start should be made with priority species. for example, Terblanche et al. (2016) stated that “in view of the urgent need to develop guidelines and test approaches for such strategies, it was decided to develop a strategy for the invasive plant Parthenium hysterophorus (famine weed)”. To date, two species-specific strategies have been developed, one for P. hysterophorus, a rapidly-spreading annual herb that poses significant threats to rangeland productivity, biodiversity and human health (Terblanche et al., 2016), and another for Campuloclinium macrocephalum (pompom weed) (le maitre, forsyth & Wilson 2015). These strategies both recommended different management approaches for municipal areas depending on the stage of invasion (absent, rare, spreading or dominant). in addition, two genus-level strategies have been published (one for acacia, van Wilgen et al., 2011, and one for Prosopis, shackleton et al., 2017a). around 70 species of australian Acacia have been introduced to south africa, and at least 14 are now known to be invasive across south africa.

collectively, the genus Acacia is the most widespread invasive taxon in the country. numerous Prosopis species were introduced into south africa from the americas, and now constitute a hybrid swarm involving many species.

Prosopis is the second most widespread invasive alien plant genus in south africa after Acacia. in addition, one family-level strategy (for cactaceae, Kaplan et al., 2017) has been published. The cactaceae has 35 listed alien species in south africa, 10 of which are targeted for eradication and 16 of which are under substantial or complete biological control (Zachariades et al., 2017). none of these strategies has been formally adopted or implemented to date, and (although there is a national cactus Working group) no entities have been formally mandated to co-ordinate and implement them, so whether or not they are going to be effective cannot yet be determined.

7.3.4. emergency interventions and enforcement actions involving listed invasive species

Dans le document The sTaTus of biological invasions and Their managemenT in souTh africa 2017 (Page 158-162)